This, the scientists teach, is the molecule of life. The acronym DNA comes from Deoxyribonucleic Acid.
It is in DNA that all the genetic information of an organism is stored and transmitted to its descendants. This genetic charge is contained in the nucleus and all cells of an organism. In all living things, DNA is formed by a double strand composed of 4 letters - A, T, C and G.
These letters represent organic compounds: the THE and the adenine, O T and the thymine, O Ç and the cytosine it's the G and the Guanine. If it were possible to stretch this tape, we would have 2 meters of DNA. The different combinations of these letters - which number more than 3 billion in each cell - make the variability of living things.
DNA sequences form the chromosomes. Each organism has a different number of chromosomes. The human being, for example, has 46 (we received 23 from the mother and another 23 from the father).
It is the functional part of DNA. In the case of the human genome, for example, only 3% is made up of genes. The rest is just protein clusters that contain no information. Genes, therefore, are special sequences of hundreds or even thousands of pairs (type A-T or C-G) that provide the basic information for producing all the proteins the body needs to produce.
In biology, the genome It is all hereditary information (passed on to its descendants) from an organism that is encoded in its DNA (or, in some viruses, RNA). This includes both genes and non-coding sequences that are very important for gene regulation, among other functions.
Sequencing is the technique used to determine in what order the bases (letters) contained in the DNA are found. By saying that a genome has been sequenced we mean that the order in which the information (genes) is placed in the genome has been determined.
But what is it for?
With the sequencing of genomes we can get information about the evolutionary line of organisms (know who has the DNA most similar to who). Information contained in genomes may result in new diagnostic methods, formulation of new drugs, vaccines, prevention and more effective treatments against disease or pests.