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Binocular microscope use, diaphragm?

Binocular microscope use, diaphragm?


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I am try to review my scope work, since my proffesor asked me to calibrate all the scopes for an intro class in biology, and it has been awhile since I used one. I googled "Binocular microscope use" and saw a powerpoint as my first link.

On page 21 it stated:

The diaphragm should be opened just enough to allow the objective lens to collect all of the light that comes through the sample. Opening the diaphragm too wide, allows some of the light to escape collection by the objective lens. Closing the diaphragm too much, causes aberrations of the image.

But if the diaphragm controls the amount of light passed through, why is "light escaping" a bad thing? Why cant I keep the light as wide as possible?

As an aside, if anyone has any suggestions for review on binoc. compound microscope use, I would appreciate it.


The escaping light causes unnecessary illumination, thus reducing the contrast. This webpage has a couple of photos that demonstrate different microscope setups.


Choosing A Homeschool Science Microscope

One of the best tools you can purchase for studying science, especially in the middle school and high school ages, is a microscope. A good microscope can open up a whole new world to young scientists.

We teach that there are cells, bacteria and other organisms that are so tiny we can’t see them with the naked eye, but sometimes students file them in their brains as hypothetical. That is until they see these small wonders under a microscope. They suddenly become real for the first time.


Parts of the Microscope

a) Ocular (eyepiece): what you look through to view your slide. Our microscopes are binocular, which means they have two eyepiece tubes and both eyes are used (monocular microscopes have only one tube). Typically ocular lenses magnify an image 10X, although some have other magnifications (ex: 12X). Binocular microscopes allow for adjustment of the distance between pupils so that both eyes can be used to observe one image.

b) Objective lenses are the lenses close to the stage. Usually microscopes will have 3-5 lenses of different magnifications (ours have 4&mdash4X, 10X, 40X and 100X magnifications). Objective lenses are located on a rotating turret to allow for changes in magnification.

c) Coarse adjustment knob: the larger (and outermost) of the two focusing knobs&mdashmoves the stage toward or away from the objectives to bring the image into focus at low power.

d) Fine adjustment knob: smaller knob within the coarse adjustment knob&mdashused for &ldquofine-tuning&rdquo an image. Only fine focus can be used when the 40X and 100X objectives are in place.

e) Stage: the platform where the slide to be viewed is placed. A mechanical stage holds the slide in place and allows for the movement of the slide to view different areas.

f) Illuminator (light source): found at the base (bottom) of the microscope below the stage.

g) Condensor/iris diaphragm assembly: found directly beneath the stage. This assembly can be raised and lowered using a knob at the side of the microscope. For our purposes, the assembly should be positioned very close to the bottom of the stage. The condenser is a lens that focuses the light from the illuminator onto the specimen. The iris diaphragm controls the amount of light that passes through the specimen. The iris diaphragm can be opened and closed by twisting the ridged ring of the assembly.

h) Base: the bottommost part of the microscope that contains the illuminator.

i) Arm: positions the objective lenses and the oculars above the stage. When moving the microscope, the base should be supported with one hand, while the arm is grasped with the other hand.

Figure 1.3.1: Label the microscope diagram Figure 1.4.2: Common shapes and arrangements of bacteria


Flinn Advanced Compound Microscopes

Take microscopy to the next level with Flinn Advanced Microscopes! Ideal for advanced biological science courses, including the biomedical sciences. Students expect high-quality optics in their electronics, and these microscopes deliver:

  • Plan eyepieces and finite color-corrected achromatic objective lenses.
  • The coaxial focus knobs put both coarse and fine focus control together for increased precision and ease of use.
  • The large mechanical stage can hold two slides for effortless comparisons.
  • Graduations on the stage and coaxial control of the mechanical stage make precision measurements possible at all magnification levels.
  • Adjustable LED light level, iris diaphragm and 1.25 N.A. ABBE condenser combine for high resolution and contrast.

The Flinn Advanced Monocular Compound Microscope, 4X, 10X, 40X (Catalog No. MS1124) is a professional-level scope at an affordable price. It has a monocular head with a WF10X Plan eyepiece and three objectives, allowing for magnification between 40X and 400X.

The Flinn Advanced Binocular Compound Microscope, 4X, 10X, 40X, 100X (Catalog No. MS1125) has a Siedentopf-style binocular head with 10X Plan eyepieces and the addition of a 100X objective lens for oil immersion.

The Flinn Advanced Trinocular Compound Microscopes, 4X, 10X, 40X, 100X (MS1205) is a trinocular microscope with the same binocular head as MS1125. The trinocular head accommodates a C-mount adapter for use with a digital camera or screen.

The Flinn Advanced Digital Compound Microscopes, 4X, 10X, 40X, 100X are available with monocular (Catalog No. MS1128) or binocular (Catalog No. MS1129) viewing heads. Go cordless with built-in charger and rechargeable batteries. Quickly teach students the tips and tricks of efficient and effective microscopy using your digital microscope with a computer and projector. Equip each student with a digital microscope, and use the included software to capture images or movies. Students can quickly annotate their photos and make important connections between structure and function.


Premiere Binocular Student Microscopes
(Model MSB-02) is a student microscope equipped with the mechanical stage which allows smooth and easy adjustment of slides left/right or backward/foward during observation as well as both coarse and fine focusing controls, and popular features for educational use. The binocular models have a few options…
Microscope MSB-02 features:

  • Binocular
  • Pair of 10X eyepieces
  • 4X, 10X, 40X DIN Objectives
  • Magnification from 40X to 400X
  • Course & fine focusing
  • Mechanical stage (low position controls)
  • Upper & lower LED light sources
  • Condenser with iris diaphragm
  • Built-in rechargeable battery
  • Detachable AC adapter cord

Microscope Model MSB-04:
Same as above but includes extra pair of 25X eyepieces for total maximum magnification of 1000X.
Microscope Model MSB-06:
Simpler version for the smaller budget. Same specs as Model MSB-02 (above) except:

  • Simple stage & battery operated
  • Stage with clips
  • Disc diaphragm
  • Uses AA batteries only

Microscope Model MSB-25:

Same as above but includes extra pair of 25X eyepieces for total maximum magnification of 1000X.


What is a Microscope?

A microscope in simple language is a device that magnifies the aspects of the microscopic particles invisible to naked eyes and helps in identifying them.

Immensely essential in the world of healthcare, the microscope consists of a few integral components:

Microscopes are available in two specific variations - Simple Microscope and Compound Microscope.

Simple Microscope

A simple Microscope has a lesser magnification capacity. Generally used to view leaves and insects, this microscope provides a clearer picture of objects that may be tiny but requires a magnified view to see better.

Compound Microscope

A compound microscope has a very powerful magnification range. They are especially useful in seeing particles and objects that are invisible to naked eyes.


References

Peter is an engineering consultant and a PhD student who uses microscopes, including electron microscopes, regularly in his research and line of work. His engineering background and deep knowledge of physics enables him to write about complex topics in a very concise and digestible format.

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Biology Microscope Lab Student Binocular Microscope 10x 40x 100x – LT/XSP-C204

• Binocular Siedentopf type heads are with 30° inclined tubes, interpupillary distance from 52 to 75 mm and is equipped with diopter adjustment(s).

• Revolving and reversed nosepiece for 4 objectives

All optics are anti-fungus treated and anti-reflection coated for maximum light throughput

•Achromatic objectives 4x/0.13 10x/0.25 S40x/0.65 S100x/1.25 oil (Optional)

•Semi Plan Achromatic objectives 4x/0.13 10x/0.25 S40x/0.65 S100x/1.25 oil (Optional)

•Plan Achromatic objectives 4x/0.13 10x/0.25 S40x/0.65 S100x/1.25 oil (Optional)

• 140 x 130 mm ceramic stage with integrated 78 x 30 mm mechanical stage protects with a very tough ceramic surface, against marks and scratches.The surface also ensures stray light not to be reflected from the stage into the objective

CONDENSER FOR BRIGHT FIELD

• The standard height adjustable Abbe N.A. 1.25 condenser for brightfield

• Coaxial coarse and fine adjustments, 200 graduations, 2 μm per graduation, 100 μm per rotation
• Supplied with an adjustable rack stop to prevent damage to sample and objectives.

• 3W LED adjustable illumination with internal 100-240 V power supply
• The innovative design offer larger apertures, allowing the optical system of the microscope to produce images at higher resolutions,
very close to the theoretical diffraction limit of the optics.


Binocular Microscopes Review

Here are the popular binocular microscopes, or more specifically, binocular compound and stereo microscopes, that I was able to find after hours of research and testing. Read on to find out about their different features, specifications, and functions.

These are mostly made by leading microscope brands, AmScope and Omax, and are guaranteed to be high performing, reliable, and durable. You’ll also find options for analog and digital microscopes on this list.

1. Omax lab LED binocular compound microscope

My first pick is the Omax lab LED binocular compound microscope, which is Amazon’s number one bestseller when it comes to binocular microscopes, and is also awarded as the best compound microscope in 2018.

It’s built with an all metal construction that is heavy duty and durable, and features a high magnification range of up to 2000x. It also has a binocular viewing head that can rotate a full 360 degrees, making it great for sharing or working with a partner.

Other amazing features include a quadruple revolving nosepiece, a scaled and double layered mechanical specimen stage, an Abbe condenser and iris diaphragm, coarse and fine focus knobs, and achromatic objective lenses.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 45 degree inclined viewing head
  • LED light source with intensity adjustment
  • Comes with 100 blank slides and coverslips
  • 5 year manufacturer’s warranty

2. AmScope B120C-E1 binocular compound microscope

The next best thing is the AmScope B120C-E1 siedentopf binocular compound microscope, which is a digital compound microscope that comes with its own 1.3MP camera and software that is compatible with most devices.

Its selling point, aside from the camera attachment, is a high magnification of up to 2500x, as well as a three dimensional specimen stage plate that offers a better range of motion when adjusting the specimen as you observe it through the eyepiece.

Plus, it makes use of widefield eyepieces in variable magnifications, features coaxial fine and coarse focus knobs, and enables you to measure, edit, and stitch specimen images using the microscope camera software.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2500x
  • 30 degree inclined viewing head
  • LED light source that is dimmable
  • Comes with a 1.3MP digital camera
  • Software compatible with Windows devices

3. Omax digital binocular compound microscope

Ranking third is the Omax digital binocular biological compound microscope, which is highly similar to the AmScope B120C-E1 in that it has a magnification range of 40x to 2000x, as well as a digital camera and software.

In terms of the microscope itself, the AmScope performs better, and I prefer the LED lights over the halogen bulb that this Omax microscope uses, but when it comes to the camera, the Omax does better, since it features a 3MP digital camera.

It also comes with color filters, a dual layered mechanical stage, coaxial focusing knobs, an Abbe condenser and iris diaphragm, and achromatic objective lenses. It’s a great option for home labs, classrooms, and research facilities.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 45 degree inclined viewing head
  • 20W halogen adjustable light source
  • Comes with a 3MP digital camera
  • 5 year manufacturer’s warranty

4. AmScope B490B binocular compound microscope

Next up is the AmScope B490B binocular compound microscope, which features high resolution optics from its widefield eyepieces and anti-mold objective lenses. It’s made of an industrial grade metal frame that is strong, stable, and durable.

It also features eight magnification levels ranging from 40x to 2000x, giving you plenty of range in viewing minute details of any specimen. It also features a three dimensional specimen stage plate that can be adjusted quickly and easily.

Plus, it has a built in Abbe condenser and iris diaphragm, tension controlled coarse and fine focus knobs, a 360 degree swivel head, and various other components that make for a sturdy framework and precise optics.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 30 degree inclined viewing head
  • 20W halogen light source with intensity adjustment
  • Comes with a spare bulb, immersion oil, and fuse
  • Quality controlled and factory sealed

5. Omax lab 2000x binocular compound microscope

Another excellent binocular compound microscope by Omax is the Omax lab 2000x, which is largely similar to the AmScope B120C-E1, except for the lower magnification capacity of 2000x, as compared to the AmScope’s 2500x maximum magnification.

Having said that, it’s still more than adequate magnification that enables you to view various specimens, such as microorganisms, plants, insects, bateria, pond water, fungi, protozoa, and pretty much anything else that can be viewed with a compound microscope.

It also makes use of achromatic objective lenses housed in its quadruple revolving nosepiece, and features a dual layer mechanical stage plate that is designed with measuring scales. This microscope’s main frame even boasts of stain and scratch resistant finishing.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 45 degree inclined viewing head
  • LED light source with intensity adjustment
  • Can be fitted with a digital camera
  • X, Y, and Z adjustable specimen stage

6. AmScope SE306R-AZ-E2 binocular stereo microscope

If you are looking for a digital stereo microscope that features a reversible black and white specimen stage plate you can use to observe different specimens in high and low contrast, the AmScope SE306R-AZ-E2 is a great and affordable option.

It features a 2.0 megapixel digital camera that lets you capture and record images and videos of the specimen under the microscope in real time, and connects to a computer software via a USB output to view, edit, measure, save, and share the image or video.

Moreover, it also features both an upper and lower illumination system provided by bright halogen bulbs. The only downside is that it has a low magnification range with a maximum of only 80x, but that’s already considerably high for a stereo microscope.

  • Magnification range of 20x to 80x
  • 45 degree inclined viewing head
  • 10W top and bottom halogen light source
  • Comes with a 2MP digital camera
  • Software compatible with Windows devices

7. Llutico siedentopf binocular compound microscope

Going back to compound microscopes, you might also want to try the Llutico siedentopf binocular compound microscope. It’s a digital compound microscope with a 3 megapixel camera and an impressive magnification of up to 2000x.

While it may not be as popular as an Omax or AmScope microscope, it surely doesn’t skimp on any of the important specs and features. It features a light yet durable aluminum body frame, an adjustable hand wheel for the specimen stage, and all the complete accessories you’ll need.

The high resolution camera is also guaranteed to let you take sharp, crisp, and clear images of whatever specimen you are observing under the microscope, and it’s also equipped with a reduction lens to give you a wider viewing field.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 30 degree inclined viewing head
  • LED light source for illumination
  • Comes with a 3MP digital camera
  • Software compatible with Windows and Mac OS

8. AmScope SM-4B binocular stereo microscope

Another option for a stereo microscope by AmScope is the AmScope SM-4-B binocular stereo microscope. It has a lower magnification of only up to 45x, as compared to the AmScope SE306R-AZ-E2’s maximum of 80x, but it has a special feature that makes it a great choice.

I’m talking about the double boom arm that this microscope is engineered with. This is rare for a binocular stereo microscope, and is quite expensive. But, it’s also extremely useful, especially since it gives you a much bigger and wider working range to work on large specimens.

This allows you to work on various microscopy projects, including engineering and electronics activities such as repairing circuit boards. Its binocular viewing head even features an adjustable interpupillary distance. Read also: Observing yeast under the microscope.

  • Magnification range of 7x to 45x
  • 45 degree inclined viewing head
  • Makes use of ambient lighting
  • Designed with a double boom arm
  • Viewing head with adjustable interpupillary distance

9. Omax digital LED binocular compound microscope

Here is another option for a digital binocular compound microscope. The Omax digital LED binocular compound microscope is a high magnification microscope that comes with a built in 1.3 megapixel camera, and is compatible even with Mac devices.

It makes use of professional grade and high quality optical glass lenses, and features a vertically inclined viewing head that rotates a full 360 degrees, so it’s easy and comfortable to use, and is great for sharing.

Its digital camera is able to capture and record high quality and high resolution images and videos of specimens, and connects to a computer software that is readily compatible to both Windows and Mac devices.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 45 degree inclined viewing head
  • LED light source for illumination
  • Comes with a 1.3MP digital camera
  • Software compatible with Windows and Mac OS

10. AmScope B490B-3M binocular compound microscope

Finally, we have the AmScope B490B-3M binocular compound microscope, another compound light microscope with an impressive magnification range, high resolution optics, bright field illumination, and a 3 megapixel camera.

In terms of specs, features, and functionality, it’s essentially the same as the AmScope B490B, except this is a digital version that comes with a digital camera and software. Comparing the two in terms of practicality, the B490B seems better, hence the higher ranking.

However, this is still a great choice, especially if what you want is a digital binocular compound microscope, since its camera is high resolution and comes with a reduction lens to give you a wider field of view.

  • Magnification range of 40x to 2000x
  • 30 degree inclined viewing head
  • Halogen light source with rheostat
  • Comes with a 3MP digital camera
  • Software compatible with Windows, Mac, and Linux

Stereomicroscopes

The stereo- or dissecting microscope is an optical microscope variant designed for observation with low magnification (2 - 100x) using incident light illumination (light reflected off the surface of the sample is observed by the user), although it can also be combined with transmitted light in some instruments. It uses two separate optical paths with two objectives and two eyepieces to provide slightly different viewing angles to the left and right eyes. In this way it allows a three-dimensional visualization of the sample.

Great working distance and depth of field are important qualities for this type of microscope, allowing large specimens such as small animals, plants and organs to be viewed with most parts in focus at the same time. In addition to the ocular and objective lens, stereomicroscopes typically contain:

Many stereomicroscopes also have adjustable magnification.

The stereomicroscope should not be confused with a binocular compound microscope, which has double eyepieces. The image in such a binocular compound microscope is no different from that obtained with a single monocular eyepiece.