We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
I was wondering:
What are the possible dangers of being burned on the surface of the skin. Does it congeal (that's what my intuition tells me)? At which temperature would that happen? How heat-conductive is human flesh?
On the other hand, there's of course been many cases of severely burned people who did obviously not die afterwards.
This question comes from an argument i had the other day, when a friend burned himself by accident and we got into talking about what was actually happening with the affected blood (i.e. at the wrists, neck etc) and if it is dangerous (if you could actually die from an occasion where you burned yourself and then get a stroke or something)
Foods That Produce Heat In The Body
According to Nutritionist and Physiologist, Ritesh Bawri, "Food has a substantial impact on you. When food causes the temperature in your body to increase, it is known as thermogenesis. Thermogenesis occurs when your body breaks down the food that you consume to produce brown fat which has a particular protein. When this protein reacts, with the food it causes the production of heat."(Also Read: How To Reduce Body Heat: 8 Effective Tips)
Food has a substantial impact on you
Root vegetables are known to cause heat in your body. These include vegetables such as potato, carrots, sweet potato and kale. These vegetables require more energy during the process of digestion causing heat in your body. According to Ayurveda, consuming onions and garlic also generates heat in the body. Similarly, Reiki practitioners ask their patients not to eat pungent foods such as onions, shallots, leeks, chives, spring onions. Along with the heat, these foods are also believed to cause nightmares, disturbed dreams and confusion.
Naturally, consuming hot liquids raises your body temperature. Most nutritionists agree that this is a good thing for your body. A slight increase in body temperature caused by consuming food or exercise creates an environment that is hostile to pathogens in your body. Your body can fight them more effectively. While summer is upon us and you should be consuming foods that calm your body, do not also forget to eat a few things that increase your body temperature, at least occasionally.
Root vegetables are known to cause heat in your bodyAs per the book 'The Complete Book of Ayurvedic Home Remedies' by Dr. Vasant Lad, here's a list of 'hot' foods -
- Fruits like mangoes, apples and oranges are considered as hot foods excessive consumption of these fruits may lead to irritation in the stomach.
- Common kitchen foods like onion, garlic, black pepper, ginger and other spicy foods are responsible for producing heat in the body.
- Root vegetables are innately hot, which is why they are generally recommended during winters.
- Spinach, beans, potatoes, broccoli, et al are also said to have a strong 'taasir' that produces heat in the body.
Fruits like mangoes, apples and oranges are considered as hot foods
Here's just the list of heat producing foods that you must mostly avoid, especially during summers.
Bodily Functions Explained: Spicy Food Reaction
It happens at dinner tables around the world every day. Something spicy — a chunk of chili pepper, perhaps — goes from fork to mouth, setting off a body-wide chain reaction.
A burning sensation spreads across the lips and ignites the tongue. Mucous membranes, which protect the lungs from harmful inhalables, go into overdrive, making the nose run. A surge of blood travels through dilated vessels and body temperature shoots up, triggering a full on sweat meant to evaporate the heat away. The lungs send an alert to the diaphragm to hiccup quickly and repeatedly in an attempt to evict the fiery invader. A full-blown reaction to spicy food is born.
The culprit is most often capsaicin, among the most potent of the spicy molecules, found in most of the hottest peppers, including habanero and cayenne, but also in much smaller amounts in things like cilantro and cinnamon. (Another notable heat source is allyl isothiocyanate, which spices up horseradish, mustard, and wasabi.)
Capsaicin, released as a fine spray when you bite into foods that contain it, triggers heat receptors in the skin, tricking the nervous system into thinking you’re overheating. In response, your brain cranks up all of your body’s cooling mechanisms.
In short, you don’t taste spicy food. You feel it.
To stop the cascade of reactions to the fiery chemicals, reach for milk— which contains a protein called casein that clings to fatty molecules like the oily capsaicin and carries them away. A 10 percent solution of sugar water also works by harnessing capsaicin’s chemical reaction with sucrose.
Blood Heat: Heat in the Blood
Image by Pexels from Pixabay
Blood Heat, as well as being quite a nuisance itself, causes other syndromes too.
What’s the background for this?
First, to see what is meant by Blood, click here. As you’ll read, Blood is the basis for our consciousness, meaning that, in Chinese medicine theory, where ‘who you think you are’ resides is in your Blood.
If someone has a major haemorrhage, or a terrible accident that puts him into shock, his Blood is severely exhausted and disturbed, and you may see his personality literally ‘going to pieces’.
But what if you’re all ‘there’, with no blood loss?
Conversely, if your personality is ‘all there’ but very disturbed, as described below, your Blood can be deranged. That derangement takes various forms, one of which is commonly from Blood-Heat.
Normally the Blood nourishes your body. It carries away unwanted matter, replacing it with new, healthier tissues. So far, so good, and much the same goes for the Western concept of blood.
When, however, something heats Blood, it tries to lose that Heat.
The most efficient way that your body clears Heat is by perspiration through your skin. With Blood Heat, however, this process is stymied and instead your body has to clear or contain Heat in other ways.
What falling in love does to your heart and brain
Getting struck by Cupid's arrow may very well take your breath away and make your heart go pitter-patter this Valentine's Day, reports sexual wellness specialists at Loyola University Health System.
"Falling in love causes our body to release a flood of feel-good chemicals that trigger specific physical reactions," said Pat Mumby, PhD, co-director of the Loyola Sexual Wellness Clinic and professor, Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Neurosciences, Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM). "This internal elixir of love is responsible for making our cheeks flush, our palms sweat and our hearts race."
Levels of these substances, which include dopamine, adrenaline and norepinephrine, increase when two people fall in love. Dopamine creates feelings of euphoria while adrenaline and norepinephrine are responsible for the pitter-patter of the heart, restlessness and overall preoccupation that go along with experiencing love.
MRI scans indicate that love lights up the pleasure center of the brain. When we fall in love, blood flow increases in this area, which is the same part of the brain implicated in obsessive-compulsive behaviors.
"Love lowers serotonin levels, which is common in people with obsessive-compulsive disorders," said Mary Lynn, DO, co-director of the Loyola Sexual Wellness Clinic and assistant professor, Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, SSOM. "This may explain why we concentrate on little other than our partner during the early stages of a relationship."
Doctors caution that these physical responses to love may work to our disadvantage.
"The phrase 'love is blind' is a valid notion because we tend to idealize our partner and see only things that we want to see in the early stages of the relationship," Dr. Mumby said. "Outsiders may have a much more objective and rational perspective on the partnership than the two people involved do."
There are three phases of love, which include lust, attraction and attachment. Lust is a hormone-driven phase where we experience desire. Blood flow to the pleasure center of the brain happens during the attraction phase, when we feel an overwhelming fixation with our partner. This behavior fades during the attachment phase, when the body develops a tolerance to the pleasure stimulants. Endorphins and hormones vasopressin and oxytocin also flood the body at this point creating an overall sense of well-being and security that is conducive to a lasting relationship.
How Does a Heat Wave Affect the Human Body?
Climate change promises to bring with it longer, hotter summers to many places on the planet. This June turned out to be the fourth-hottest month ever recorded&mdashglobally&mdashscientists are reporting. With more heat waves on the horizon, and a big one currently sweeping much of the U.S., the risk of heat-related health problems has also been on the rise.
Heat exhaustion is a relatively common reaction to severe heat and can include symptoms such as dizziness, headache and fainting. It can usually be treated with rest, a cool environment and hydration (including refueling of electrolytes, which are necessary for muscle and other body functions). Heat stroke is more severe and requires medical attention&mdashit is often accompanied by dry skin, a body temperature above 103 degrees Fahrenheit, confusion and sometimes unconsciousness.
Extreme heat is only blamed for an average of 688 deaths each year in the U.S., according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). But when sustained heat waves hit a region, the other health ramifications can be serious, including sunstroke and even major organ damage due to heat.
The Chicago heat wave in the summer of 1995 killed an estimated 692 people and sent at least 3,300 people to the emergency room. An observational study of some of those patients revealed that 28 percent who were diagnosed at the time with severe heat stroke had died within a year of being admitted to the hospital, and most who initially survived the high temperatures had "permanent loss of independent function," according to a 1998 study of the heat wave, published in Archives of Internal Medicine.
As temperatures linger above our bodies' own healthy internal temperature for longer periods of time, will we humans be able to take the heat? We spoke with Mike McGeehin, director of the CDC's Environmental Hazards and Health Effects Program, to find out just why&mdashand how&mdasha warm, sunny summer day can do us in.
[An edited transcript of the interview follows.]
How do humans cope with hot, hot weather?
The two ways we cope with heat are by perspiring and breathing.
So is it the heat or humidity that is the real killer?
The humidity is a huge factor. If you have tremendously high temperatures and high humidity, a person will be sweating but the sweat won't be drying on the skin. That&rsquos why it's not just heat but the combination of heat and humidity that matters. That combination results in a number called the apparent temperature or "how it feels".
Obviously there are thresholds for both temperature and humidity above which we see an increase in death, and it's going to be a different temperature in Phoenix than it's going to be in Chicago.
The other major factor in terms of temperature that causes both mortality and morbidity is the temperature that it falls to in the evening. If the temperature remains elevated overnight, that's when we see the increase in deaths. The body becomes overwhelmed because it doesn't get the respite that it needs.
What kind of impact does extreme, sustained heat have on the human body?
The systems in the human body that enable it to adapt to heat become overwhelmed. When a person is exposed to heat for a very long time, the first thing that shuts down is the ability to sweat. We know that when perspiration is dried by the air there is a cooling effect on the body. Once a person stops perspiring, in very short order a person can move from heat exhaustion to heat stroke.
What happens in the transition from heat exhaustion to heat stroke?
It begins with perspiring profusely, and when that shuts down, the body becomes very hot. Eventually that begins to affect the brain, and that's when people begin to get confused and can lose consciousness.
The analogy we use is if you're driving a car and you notice that the temperature light comes on, what's happening is the cooling system of the car is becoming overwhelmed. If you turn off the car and let it cool eventually you can start driving again. But if you continue to drive the car, the problem goes beyond the cooling system to affect the engine, and eventually the car will stop.
What other areas of the body does this extreme overheating affect?
As the body temperature increases very rapidly, the central nervous system and circulatory system are impacted.
In places where there have been prolonged heat exposures, there is probably a broad impact on many organ systems. From heat waves that have been studied, like in Chicago, there are increases in emergency department visits and hospital stays for medical crises that are not normally associated with heat, such as kidney problems.
But it really hasn't been studied very much. One of the reasons for that is the main focus of the studies has been on mortality from heat waves, and there hasn't been that much focus on morbidity. That would take looking at people who are hospitalized from heat exhaustion or heat stroke and following them into the future.
Before someone gets full-blow heat stroke, what are the body's early reactions to excessive heat?
Heat rash and muscle cramps are early signs of people being overwhelmed by heat. If those aren't dealt with, it can lead to more severe symptoms.
Cramping of muscles can be for a number of different issues, including electrolytes not getting to the muscles.
People should be aware that their skin turning red and dry are indicators that heat is impacting them.
Who is the most vulnerable to extended high temperatures?
We know the risk factors for dying from heat are urban dwellers who are elderly, isolated and don't have access to air conditioning. Obese people are at increased risk as are people on certain medications. And people who are exercising or working in the heat, who don't meet those criteria, can be at risk.
What medications can make the body more susceptible to extreme heat?
In the study from the 1995 Chicago heat wave, we found that diuretics for high blood pressure were some that did, and beta blockers&mdasha number of studies showed that people taking them could be at increased risk.
There are some studies that have shown that certain mental health medications may impact a person's ability to deal with the heat. But that's a difficult one to get at. When you look at the number of people who die in a heat wave and the number of people who are taking those medications, the numbers can get pretty small pretty quickly.
What's the hottest temperature a healthy human can tolerate?
We don't know that&mdashno one knows that. There are different humans, different humidities, different types of temperature.
Have we not evolved to cope with super hot weather?
Certainly society has evolved in dealing with the heat&mdashand that has been in the development of air conditioners. The number-one factor that ameliorates death from heat is access to air conditioning.
And I've read that fans don't work to prevent overheating in really hot temperatures&hellip
Not only does it not work, it actually makes it worse. We compare it to a convection oven. By blowing hot air on a person, it heats them up rather than cools them down.
Are modern humans neglecting to do something our ancestors did to survive the heat?
I think it's always been a problem. There's history over hundreds of years of people dying of heat. Philadelphia in 1776 had a major heat wave that caused deaths.
We're also living to older ages, and we're more urban now than we have been in the history of the human species. That intense crowding can combine with the heat island effect in big cities. Our elderly people are also more isolated than they have been in the past, so those factors can play a part, too.
The IPCC, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the thing that they are most comfortable in predicting, that the science is most solid for, is the increase in many parts of the world in the duration and intensity of heat waves.
Why do our Stomachs Rumble?
The classic rumble associated with hunger is less to do with the stomach and more to do with our large intestine. A rumbling tummy is a combination of liquid and gas plus a small space.
Food does not move down our digestive system by gravity - if that were the case, astronauts would not survive in space. Instead, muscle contractions in the gut wall called peristalsis both churn up the food and move it through the system. These muscle contractions occur right the way through the digestive system, from the oesophagus to the stomach to the intestines and out the other end.
When air gets trapped in the folds and bends of the small intestine, the liquid sloshing around can create a rumble - amplified by the small space of the small intestine. The reason we associate a rumbling tummy with hunger is that the rumbling is louder the less food is present in the intestine.
How Anger Works
When a cartoon character gets angry, steams comes out the ears, red creeps over the body from head to toe and there may even be an explosion or two. It's not as entertaining to watch in real life, but the state of anger causes physical effects in us as well. The response varies from person to person, but some symptoms include teeth grinding, fists clenching, flushing, paling, prickly sensations, numbness, sweating, muscle tensions and temperature changes [source: Tavris].
The feeling of anger may differ from person to person women, for example, are more likely to describe anger slowly building through the body rate, while men describe it as a fire or a flood raging within them [source: Thomas]. Of course, it varies by what's acceptable in the culture as well: Some Asian cultures may experience anger in a milder way and for a shorter time than Caucasian Americans [source: Diong]. Either way, it's much like the fight-or-flight response your body is gearing up for a fight to survive a wrong that's been perpetrated against you. Chemicals like adrenaline and noradrenaline surge through the body.
In the brain, the amygdala, the part of the brain that deals with emotion, is going crazy. It wants to do something, and the time between a trigger event and a response from the amygdala can be a quarter of a second [source: Ellison]. But at the same time, blood flow is increasing to the frontal lobe, specifically the part of the brain that's over the left eye. This area controls reasoning and is likely what's keeping you from hurling a vase across the room. These areas generally balance each other out quickly according to some research, the neurological response to anger lasts less than two seconds [source: McCarthy]. This is why you get a lot of advice about counting to 10 when angry.
Many cite the example of Phineas Gage to explain the importance of the frontal lobe in controlling our rage. In 1848, Gage, a nice, dependable railroad worker suffered an accident in which a rod went through his skull, right above the left eye. From then on, Gage was angry, irritable and unstable, and not just because he'd had a rod driven through his skull. Rather, the rod had destroyed the part of his brain that could inhibit an angry response.
If you're constantly being activated by triggers, however, then this state of response can start to cause damage. Chronically angry people may not have the mechanism to turn off these effects. They may not produce acetylcholine, a hormone which tempers the more severe effects of adrenaline. Their nervous system is constantly working and can eventually become overexerted, leading to a weakened heart and stiffer arteries [source: Angier]. There's potential for liver and kidney damage, as well as high cholesterol. Anger may bring along some accompanying issues, such as depression or anxiety .
Anger's physical side effects explain why you frequently see studies about the damage that this emotion can do to our bodies. In one study of almost 13,000 subjects, individuals with the highest levels of anger had twice the risk of coronary artery disease and three times the risk of heart attack, as compared to the subjects with the lowest levels of anger [source: Kam]. Some scientists think that chronic anger may be more dangerous than smoking and obesity as a factor that will contribute to early death [source: Angier].
For some of these effects, the key is tempering the triggers that set you off, so that you're not mad at every little thing. But for some of these diseases, the key is how you're expressing your anger. On the next page, we'll look at whether letting it all hang out is a good idea.
How Chemicals Are Exchanged in the Body
All cells in the body continually exchange chemicals (e.g.,nutrients, waste products, and ions) with the external fluid surrounding them (Figure 2). This external fluid, in turn, exchanges chemicals with the blood being pumped throughout the body. A dominant mode of exchange between these fluids (cellular fluid, external fluid, and blood) is diffusion through membrane channels, due to a concentration gradient associated with the contents of the fluids. (Recall your experience with concentration gradients in the "Membranes, Proteins, and Dialysis" experiment.) Hence, the chemical composition of the blood (and therefore of the external fluid) is extremely important for the cell. If, for instance, the pH of the blood and external fluid is too low (too many H + ions), then an excess of H + ions will enter the cell. As mentioned above, maintaining the proper pH is critical for the chemical reactions that occur in the body. In order to maintain the proper chemical composition inside the cells, the chemical composition of the fluids outside the cells must be kept relatively constant. This constancy is known in biology as homeostasis.
This is a schematic diagram showing the flow of species across membranes between the cells, the extracellular fluid, and the blood in the capillaries.
The body has a wide array of mechanisms to maintain homeostasis in the blood and extracellular fluid. The most important way that the pH of the blood is kept relatively constant is by buffers dissolved in the blood. Other organs help enhance the homeostatic function of the buffers. The kidneys help remove excess chemicals from the blood, as discussed in the Kidney Dialysis tutorial. It is the kidneys that ultimately remove (from the body) H + ions and other components of the pH buffers that build up in excess. Acidosis that results from failure of the kidneys to perform this excretory function is known as metabolic acidosis. However, excretion by the kidneys is a relatively slow process, and may take too long to prevent acute acidosis resulting from a sudden decrease in pH (e.g., during exercise). The lungs provide a faster way to help control the pH of the blood. The increased-breathing response to exercise helps to counteract the pH-lowering effects of exercise by removing CO2, a component of the principal pH buffer in the blood. Acidosis that results from failure of the lungs to eliminate CO2 as fast as it is produced is known as respiratory acidosis.
Questions on Chemical Changes in Blood During Exercise and How Chemicals Are Exchanged in the Body
- Why does exercise generate H + ?
- How can H + generated in muscle cells during exercise affect the pH of the blood throughout the body (i.e., how does the concentration of H + in the muscle cells affect the concentration of H + in the blood)?
Four Things Extreme Heat Does To Your Body
When most people think of summer, visions of warm temperatures, beach vacations and enjoying the outdoors come to mind. However, it is important to remember that heat can be dangerous and it can do terrible things to your body.
Extreme heat should be taken seriously by everyone, but especially children, the elderly and those with health issues.
What is extreme heat? The definition varies by region, but usually requires temperatures at least 10 degrees above average. However, generally temperatures of 90 degrees or above, accompanied by high humidity levels and resulting in high heat index values, is considered extreme heat. This type of heat typically occurs when a strong upper-level area of high pressure develops over a region, causing the air to sink and warm.
The good news is that if proper precautions are taken, heat-related health issues can be avoided. In most cases, staying hydrated and getting into a cool environment can avoid serious health problems.
However, in order to prevent health issues caused by the heat, you need to be aware of the potential consequences first. Here are four things that can happen to your body during extreme heat events.
1. Heat Makes You Feel Ill
Some of the first signs that your body is beginning to have trouble due to extremely hot temperatures are increased sweating and muscle cramps.
When you sweat, you are losing water, and if you do not replace the amount you are losing, an imbalance in salt can result, causing cramps.
In addition, if your sweat pores become blocked, a heat rash, or tiny red dots on your skin, can develop. Another issue that can occur is heat edema, which is when your body dilates your blood vessels in order to avoid overheating, and blood can pool in the legs, especially if the balance of salt in your body is off. The end result can be swelling in the legs, feet or hands.
Prolonged exposure to extreme heat can also result in dizziness and confusion. These conditions are also the result of the increased blood flow to dilate the blood vessels combined with loss of fluid through sweating. Fainting can even occur once enough fluid has been lost and if there is a drop in blood flow to the head as more fluid moves into your legs due to gravity.
Other potential physical impacts are nausea, diarrhea, headache and fatigue. These can result when sweating doesn't cool the body enough on its own and when someone is dehydrated.
2. Heat Exhaustion Can Set In
Heat exhaustion can set in when your body is depleted of either water or salt, due to exposure to the heat.
Symptoms of heat exhaustion include:
- Dizziness or fainting
- Excessive sweating
- Dark-colored urine
- Cool, pale or clammy skin
- Nausea or vomiting
- Rapid and weak pulse
- Muscle cramps
If you start to exhibit these symptoms, it's very important to get out of the heat, drink nonalcoholic and decaffeinated beverages, take a cool shower and rest.
An even more serious condition is heat stroke, which can develop if heat exhaustion is not treated. The National Weather Service office in Springfield, Missouri, shared some of the differences between heat exhaustion and heat stroke.
3. Heat Stroke Is A Possibility
Heat stroke is the most serious form of heat injury, according to the Mayo Clinic, and is usually the result of prolonged exposure to or physical exertion in high temperatures. However, the elderly, children under age 4, those living in homes without air conditioners and people with chronic diseases are also at risk for developing heat stroke.
Symptoms of heat stroke include:
- Body temperature above 103 degrees
- No sweating
- Severe headache
- Confusion or disorientation
- Red, hot and dry skin
- Nausea or vomiting
- Rapid pulse
- Loss of consciousness
- Muscle weakness or cramps
Heat stroke is an emergency that needs immediate medical treatment, as it can cause damage to your brain, heart, kidneys and other muscles. It often occurs from the progression of milder heat-related illness, but can come on suddenly as well.