In details

Harmonic Intraspecific Relations

Relationships that occur in individuals of the same species, with no disadvantage or benefit for any of the species considered. They comprise the colonies and societies.

Grouping of individuals of the same species that reveal a deep degree of interdependence and are linked to each other, making life impossible for them when isolated from the set, and may or may not have division of labor.

At barnacles, corals and sponges always live in colonies. There are colonies with division of labor. This is what we can observe with colonies of cnidarian jellyfish (caravels) and Volvox globator (protist) colonies: there are some individuals specialized in reproduction and others specialized in the displacement of the colony (which is spherical) in water.


Societies are groupings of individuals of the same species who have full isolated capacity for life but prefer to live collectively. Individuals in a society have physical independence from each other. There may, however, be some degree of differentiation of forms between them and division of labor, as with ants, bees, and termites or termites.

In the various social insects, communication between different individuals is done through pheromones - chemicals that serve for communication. Pheromones are used in territory demarcation, sexual attraction, alarm transmission, food localization and social organization.