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7.5: Introduction to Bacterial Diseases in Humans - Biology

7.5: Introduction to Bacterial Diseases in Humans - Biology


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Identify common bacterial diseases in humans

Devastating pathogen-borne diseases and plagues, both viral and bacterial in nature, have affected humans since the beginning of human history. Over time, people came to realize that staying apart from afflicted persons, and disposing of the corpses and personal belongings of victims of illness, reduced their own chances of getting sick.

Epidemiologists study how diseases affect a population. An epidemic is a disease that occurs in an unusually high number of individuals in a population at the same time. A pandemic is a widespread, usually worldwide, epidemic. An endemic disease is a disease that is constantly present, usually at low incidence, in a population.

What You’ll Learn to Do

  • Identify bacterial diseases that caused historically important plagues and epidemics
  • Identify common foodborne illnesses
  • Explain how overuse of antibiotic may be creating “superbugs”

Learning Activities

The learning activities for this section include the following:

  • Long History of Bacterial Disease
  • Biofilms and Foodborne Diseases
  • Antibiotic Resistance
  • Self Check: Bacterial Diseases in Humans

OpenStax: Microbiology

​Accurate identification of bacterial isolates is essential in a clinical microbiology laboratory because the results often inform decisions about treatment that directly affect patient outcomes. For example, cases of food poisoning require accurate identification of the causative agent so that physicians can prescribe appropriate treatment. Likewise, it is important to accurately identify the causative pathogen during an outbreak of disease so that appropriate strategies can be employed to contain the epidemic.

There are many ways to detect, characterize, and identify microorganisms. Some methods rely on phenotypic biochemical characteristics, while others use genotypic identification. The biochemical characteristics of a bacterium provide many traits that are useful for classification and identification. Analyzing the nutritional and metabolic capabilities of the bacterial isolate is a common approach for determining the genus and the species of the bacterium. Some of the most important metabolic pathways that bacteria use to survive will be discussed in Microbial Metabolism. In this section, we will discuss a few methods that use biochemical characteristics to identify microorganisms.

Some microorganisms store certain compounds as granules within their cytoplasm, and the contents of these granules can be used for identification purposes. For example, poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a carbon- and energy-storage compound found in some nonfluorescent bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. Different species within this genus can be classified by the presence or the absence of PHB and fluorescent pigments. The human pathogen P. aeruginosa and the plant pathogen P. syringae are two examples of fluorescent Pseudomonas species that do not accumulate PHB granules.

Other systems rely on biochemical characteristics to identify microorganisms by their biochemical reactions, such as carbon utilization and other metabolic tests. In small laboratory settings or in teaching laboratories, those assays are carried out using a limited number of test tubes. However, more modern systems, such as the one developed by Biolog, Inc., are based on panels of biochemical reactions performed simultaneously and analyzed by software. Biolog’s system identifies cells based on their ability to metabolize certain biochemicals and on their physiological properties, including pH and chemical sensitivity. It uses all major classes of biochemicals in its analysis. Identifications can be performed manually or with the semi- or fully automated instruments.

Another automated system identifies microorganisms by determining the specimen’s mass spectrum and then comparing it to a database that contains known mass spectra for thousands of microorganisms. This method is based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF) and uses disposable MALDI plates on which the microorganism is mixed with a specialized matrix reagent (Figure 1). The sample/reagent mixture is irradiated with a high-intensity pulsed ultraviolet laser, resulting in the ejection of gaseous ions generated from the various chemical constituents of the microorganism. These gaseous ions are collected and accelerated through the mass spectrometer, with ions traveling at a velocity determined by their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), thus, reaching the detector at different times. A plot of detector signal versus m/z yields a mass spectrum for the organism that is uniquely related to its biochemical composition. Comparison of the mass spectrum to a library of reference spectra obtained from identical analyses of known microorganisms permits identification of the unknown microbe.​

Figure 1. MALDI-TOF methods are now routinely used for diagnostic procedures in clinical microbiology laboratories. This technology is able to rapidly identify some microorganisms that cannot be readily identified by more traditional methods. (credit “MALDI plate photo”: modification of work by Chen Q, Liu T, Chen G credit “graphs”: modification of work by Bailes J, Vidal L, Ivanov DA, Soloviev M) ​

​Microbes can also be identified by measuring their unique lipid profiles. As we have learned, fatty acids of lipids can vary in chain length, presence or absence of double bonds, and number of double bonds, hydroxyl groups, branches, and rings. To identify a microbe by its lipid composition, the fatty acids present in their membranes are analyzed. A common biochemical analysis used for this purpose is a technique used in clinical, public health, and food laboratories. It relies on detecting unique differences in fatty acids and is called fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis. In a FAME analysis, fatty acids are extracted from the membranes of microorganisms, chemically altered to form volatile methyl esters, and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). The resulting GC chromatogram is compared with reference chromatograms in a database containing data for thousands of bacterial isolates to identify the unknown microorganism (Figure 2).

Figure 2. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis in bacterial identification results in a chromatogram unique to each bacterium. Each peak in the gas chromatogram corresponds to a particular fatty acid methyl ester and its height is proportional to the amount present in the cell. (credit “culture”: modification of work by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention credit “graph”: modification of work by Zhang P. and Liu P.)​

​A related method for microorganism identification is called phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA) analysis. Membranes are mostly composed of phospholipids, which can be saponified (hydrolyzed with alkali) to release the fatty acids. The resulting fatty acid mixture is then subjected to FAME analysis, and the measured lipid profiles can be compared with those of known microorganisms to identify the unknown microorganism.

Bacterial identification can also be based on the proteins produced under specific growth conditions within the human body. These types of identification procedures are called proteomic analysis. To perform proteomic analysis, proteins from the pathogen are first separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the collected fractions are then digested to yield smaller peptide fragments. These peptides are identified by mass spectrometry and compared with those of known microorganisms to identify the unknown microorganism in the original specimen.

Microorganisms can also be identified by the carbohydrates attached to proteins (glycoproteins) in the plasma membrane or cell wall. Antibodies and other carbohydrate-binding proteins can attach to specific carbohydrates on cell surfaces, causing the cells to clump together. Serological tests (e.g., the Lancefield groups tests, which are used for identification of Streptococcus species) are performed to detect the unique carbohydrates located on the surface of the cell.


Biology Courses

This survey course provides a foundation in environmental issues such as global warming, overfishing, endangered species, human population growth, habitat destruction, energy usage, air and water pollution, resource usage as well as over-consumption in an effort to build sustainable solutions towards solving these problems.

BIOL 10: Introduction to Biology

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This is an introductory course in general biology designed for non-science majors. Emphasis is on using critical thinking skills to understand and apply biological principles to the solution of everyday problems. Topics discussed include the scientific method, evolution, ecology, cell function and structure, cell energy, DNA and biotechnology, as well as how organisms interact with their internal and external environment. Concurrent enrollment and a passing grade in both the lecture and the laboratory is required to receive credit for transfer as a GE science course with lab. BIOL 10/10L and BIOL 011 meet the same general education requirements. Note: UC will accept credit for only one course, Biol 010 or Biol 011/011H, not both. West Valley College will only allow students to take Biol 010 or BIOL 11/11H, not both.

BIOL 10L: Introduction to Biology Lab

1 unit: lecture 0 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This lab is a required Corequisite to the Biology 010 lecture course. This introductory laboratory class in general biology is designed for non-science majors and covers topics in ecology, evolution, anatomy, cell and molecular biology, and genetics. Emphasis is on using critical thinking skills to understand and apply biological principles to better understanding topics in general biology. Concurrent enrollment and a passing grade in both the lecture and the laboratory is required to receive credit for transfer as a GE science course with lab. BIOL 10/10L and BIOL 11 meet the same general education requirements. Note: UC will accept credit for only one course, BIOL 010 or BIOL 11/11H, not both. West Valley College will only allow students to take BIOL 10 or BIOL 11/11H, not both.

BIOL 11: Human Biology

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

Using human anatomy and physiology as its medium, this is an introduction course in biology designed for non-science majors. Emphasis is on using critical thinking skills to understand and apply biological principles to the solution of everyday problems. Topics discussed include the scientific method, basic chemistry, genetics, cell structure and function, as well as how human systems interact with their internal and external environment. Laboratory work includes hands on application of concepts discussed in lectures through dissection, computer simulations and field work. A passing grade in both lecture and laboratory is required to receive credit for the course. A passing grade in both the lecture and the laboratory is required to receive credit for the course. Biol 10/10L and BIOL 11 meet the same general education requirements. Note: UC will accept credit for only one course, BIOL 10 or BIOL 11/11H, not both. West Valley College will only allow students to take Biol 10 or BIOL 11/11H, not both.

BIOL 11H: Honors Human Biology

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

Honors Human Biology uses the pedagogical methods common to all Honors courses: interdisciplinary, writing- intensive, collaborative, and experiential instruction. Course content makes connection through a common theme with other courses offered within the specified transdisciplinary unit. This is an introductory biology course that uses humans as the model for understanding and applying the principles and concepts of biology. Emphasis is placed on using critical thinking skill to find solutions to everyday problems. Topics include the scientific method, cell structure and function, the physiology of human nutrition, circulation, excretion, reproduction, heredity, and how humans are related and adapted to their environment. Laboratory work includes hands-on application of concepts discussed in lectures. This course will be of particular interest to students considering careers in health. A passing grade in both the lecture and the laboratory is required to receive credit for the course. BIOL 11 and BIOL 10/10L meet the same general education requirements. Note: UC will accept credit for only one course, Biol 10 or Biol 011/011H, not both. West Valley College will only allow students to take Biol 010 or BIOL 11/11H, not both.

BIOL 12: Introduction to Ecology & Wildlife

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This non-major course is an introduction to the general ecological principles that integrate all life on earth, with special focus on wildlife populations and their natural history. Energy and material flows will be covered, along with animal biology, behavior, population dynamics and human impact and management. Laboratory and field exercises emphasize investigational techniques used in scientific studies.

BIOL 13: Natural History of California

3 units: lecture 2 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course explores the plant and animal communities of California. The students have the opportunity to learn about the ecology of California in both the classroom and field settings. Preliminary class meetings are followed by a field trip(s). Students must successfully complete class preparatory requirements in order to participate in the field trip(s). Students are responsible for transportation and costs associated with travel, meals, camping equipment and related expenses.

BIOL 14: California Plants and Animals

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: California State University

This course is a general education course which introduces California plants and animals in an ecological context. An ecosystem approach is used to explain the geographic distribution of life forms and their community associations. In-class activities and out-of-class projects involve learning the natural history of California life forms, as well as recognizing and naming them. Anyone who is interested in teaching, recreation or park management will learn identification and display techniques that will be of use. Introduction to the natural history of California with an emphasis on plants and animals. The most common life forms from the coast to the mountains to the desert will be explored within the ecological context. Anyone who is interested in teaching, recreation or park management will learn identification and useful field techniques. This class is designed for non-majors.

BIOL 18: Marine Biology

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course is a survey of the biological principles of marine science. It is designed to acquaint the student with the natural history of the local coastline, the Monterey Bay and its adjoining areas. The use of oceanographic instruments and marine sampling devices, a descriptive survey of the flora and fauna as found in laboratory study and field trips, and the relationship of the ocean to man are also included.

BIOL 22: Genetics

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This general education course is primarily for the non-science major. This is an introduction to the basic principles and concepts of heredity and their application to plants and animals, with emphasis on the heredity process, pedigrees, mutation, medical genetics, recombinant DNA, biotechnology genetics, population genetics.

BIOL 23: Introduction to Infectious Diseases

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This introductory biology course explores infectious diseases, parasites, and human immunity. The course begins with a survey of infectious disease agents, including emerging pathogens, agents of bioterrorism, and newer complications seen in ancient diseases. The course continues by examining how the human immune system responds to these infections and helps students interpret epidemiological patterns of disease in human populations.

BIOL 24: Contemporary Biology

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course is designed for students of all disciplines to introduce a wide range of currently relevant biological topics that affect students’ lives including issues relating to the environment, human physiology, genetics, and many others. Basic biological concepts are presented to encourage meaningful discussions of these issues and to help students understand news articles, books, and essays on these topics.

BIOL 35: Biology of Birds

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course introduces the natural history and biology of birds. The anatomy, ecology, diversity, behavior, and identification of birds are explored through lectures, laboratories, and field trips. The biology of California birds is emphasized. The course is directed towards biology students, science educators (K-12), natural history museum and environmental docents, environmental educators, as well as bird enthusiasts. Students are responsible for transportation and costs associated with travel.

BIOL 36: Animal Behavior

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

Have you ever wondered why animals behave the way they do? This course will explore different aspects of animal behavior ranging from the hardships of growing up, capturing food, escaping, migrating, navigating, communicating, making homes, competing for mates, courting, sex, taking care of offspring to the complex social behavior found in many animals.

BIOL 37: Evolution – Life on Earth

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course is an introduction to the history of life on earth by the exploration of past and current environments through the evolution of different types of species over time. The course emphasizes Darwin’s theory of evolution, the evidence supporting it, mechanisms of evolution as well as modern viewpoints having implications for society and culture.

BIOL 38: Biodiversity and Extinction – Hotspots, Crisis and Conservation

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

The class surveys the biodiversity on Earth with a focus on plants and animals in selected hotspots across the world. It examines ecological and evolutionary principles necessary to understand the nature and importance of the worldwide environmental crisis.

BIOL 40: Organismal Biology

4 units: lecture 3 units lab 1 units

Prerequisites: MATH 106 or MATH 106R

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course, intended for biology majors, is a survey of the basic biology and diversity of unicellular and multi-cellular organisms. It emphasizes general biological principles, classification, structure, function and evolutionary adaptations of organisms (including plants, fungi, animals, and unicellular organisms) to their environments.

BIOL 41: Principles of Animal Biology

5 units: lecture 3 units lab 2 units

Prerequisites: BIOL 10 or BIOL 11 or equivalent high school biology course, MATH 106 or MATH 106R

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course is intended for biology majors and introduces the principles and concepts of animal biology. The material includes a survey of animal phyla and non-photosynthetic, single-celled, eukaryotic taxa and covers the comparative structure, function, and life cycles of animals, as well as principles of evolution, taxonomy, and systematics. Topics include development, morphology and physiology, phylogeny, and behavior of animals, as well as principles of evolution, mechanisms of evolutionary change, and speciation.

BIOL 42: Principles of Plant Biology

5 units: lecture 3 units lab 2 units

Prerequisite: MATH 106/106R

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course for biology majors surveys basic principles of the plant sciences by examining all levels of biological organization. It covers comparative diversity, structure, and function of plant, fungal and protistan phyla. Topics include development, morphology and physiology, taxonomy, systematics, and evolution. Principles of population and community ecology and ecosystem interactions are emphasized. Laboratory activities include microscopic work, experimental physiology, and studies of biodiversity, natural history and ecology. Field trips to several ecosystems in the Bay Area provide numerous opportunities to study local flora.

BIOL 43: Principles of Cell Biology

5 units: lecture 3 units lab 2 units

Prerequisites: CHEM 1A and MATH 106 or MATH 106R and BIOL 10 or and BIOL 11 or successful completion of any college biology course.

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course, intended for majors, covers principles and applications of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell structure and function, taxonomy, viruses, biological molecules, homeostasis, cell reproduction and its controls, molecular genetics, genetic engineering, mitosis, cell metabolism including photosynthesis and respiration, cellular communication, and hypotheses of the origin of life. Laboratory exercises demonstrate lecture concepts, and give students practical experience in performing standard laboratory methods used in cell biology. The philosophy of science, methods of scientific inquiry and experimental design are foundational to the course. This course is designed to complete the preparation of the biology and preprofessional major for specialized upper division courses.

BIOL 45: Microbiology

5 units: lecture 3 units lab 2 units

Prerequisite: BIOL 10 or BIOL 11 or Successful completion of any college biology course and CHEM 2 or CHEM 1A or CHEM 30A or Successful completion of any college chemistry course

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course is designed for nursing and other majors in life science. An introduction to microorganisms and the laboratory techniques employed in their study. The characteristics, particularly of bacteria, but including viruses, rickettsiae, algae, fungi, yeasts and protozoa will be studied with emphasis on their relationship to human life. Laboratory work will include morphological, cultural, nutritional and biochemical characteristics of microorganisms. The student will gain experience with the basic laboratory skills of the microbiologist.

BIOL 47: Human Anatomy

5 units: lecture 3 units lab 2 units

Prerequisite: BIOL 010 or BIOL 11 or successful completion of a High School general biology course. (Course should include an overview of cellular structure, cellular function, cell division and the scientific method.).

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course for health professionals covers the principles and concepts of human anatomy through the comprehensive study of the gross and microscopic structure of the human body. Lab consists of HUMAN CADAVER examination, CAT dissection, and microscopic examination of human tissues.

BIOL 48: Human Physiology

5 units: lecture 3 units lab 2 units

Prerequisite: BIOL 47 CHEM 2 or CHEM 30A or CHEM 1A

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

Physiology is the study of the organ systems of the human body and the physiological principles involved in normal function. Emphasis is upon cellular and organ system function, integration and homeostasis, and regulatory mechanisms. The laboratory includes experiments stressing function of the body systems. Some experiments will be carried out on the students themselves.

BIOL 50: Human Cadaver Dissection

1 unit: lecture 0 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: California State University

This course is a whole dissection of a human cadaver. The course is designed for nursing, medical, physical therapy, physician assistant, chiropractic and other health related majors. The course will use a regional approach to cadaver dissection. Working in small groups, students will dissect cadavers while the instructor provides the necessary information for the dissection. (Summer Only) Pass/No Pass Option

BIOL 55: Biology of Sex

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

Acceptable for credit: California State University

This course explores the natural history of sex and how it is fundamental to understanding the evolution and diversity of sexual reproductive strategies. Students will have the opportunity to learn about the biology behind the fantastic strategies organisms use to mix their genes. Topics covered include the evolution of sex, sex differences, mating strategies, costs of reproduction, sexual conflict, sperm competition, sexual selection, promiscuity, and female choice.

BIOL 56: Ecology of Sierra Nevada

3 units: lecture 2 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course explores the natural history and ecology of the Sierra Nevada. This general education course includes an overview of the climate, evolutionary history, biogeography, community structure, natural history, and ecology of the plants, mammals, birds and insects of the Sierra Nevada range. Students also have the opportunity to gain an understanding of basic field techniques. This class is held in the field with required preliminary class meetings at West Valley College. Students are responsible for transportation and costs associated with travel, camping equipment, and related expenses.

BIOL 58: Field Ecology

3 units: lecture 2 units lab 1 unit

Acceptable for credit: University of California, California State University

This course explores the ecology of plant and animal communities. Students have the opportunity to learn about field ecology in both the classroom and outdoor settings. Preliminary class meetings are followed by a field trip(s). Students must successfully complete class preparatory requirements in order to participate in the field trip(s). Students are responsible for transportation and costs associated with travel, meals, camping equipment and related expenses.

BIOL 59: Climate Change

3 units: lecture 3 units lab 0 units

This non-major course is an introduction to the biology of climate change. Students have the opportunity to learn the basics of how climate change works with an overview of both natural and anthropogenic forces that drive climate patterns. This course reviews climate change data and the evidence of past and present climate patterns. Students have the opportunity to learn how evidence and models predict how climate change is impacting and will impact the environment, biodiversity and human society and to learn about climate change policy and the future of climate change impacts by exploring mediation at the global, national, state, community and individual level.


7.6 Review Questions

    1. What is a body cavity?
    2. Compare and contrast the ventral and dorsal body cavities.
    3. Identify the subdivisions of the ventral cavity, and the organs each contains.
    4. Describe the subdivisions of the dorsal cavity and their contents.
    5. Identify and describe all the tissues that protect the brain and spinal cord.
    6. What do you think might happen if fluid were to build up excessively in one of the body cavities?
    7. Explain why a woman’s body can accommodate a full-term fetus during pregnancy without damaging her internal organs.
    8. Which body cavity does the needle enter in a lumbar puncture?
    9. What are the names given to the three body cavity divisions where the heart is located?What are the names given to the three body cavity divisions where the kidneys are located?

    Diverticulitis

    Diverticulitis is a digestive disease in which tiny pouches in the wall of the large intestine become infected and inflamed. Symptoms typically include lower abdominal pain of sudden onset. There may also be fever, nausea, diarrhea or constipation, and blood in the stool. Having large intestine pouches called diverticula (see Figure 15.7.2) that are not inflamed is called diverticulosis . Diverticulosis is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, and is more common in people who are obese. Infection and inflammation of the pouches (diverticulitis) occurs in about 10–25% of people with diverticulosis, and is more common at older ages. The infection is generally caused by bacteria.

    Figure 15.7.2 This images show multiple pouches called diverticula in the wall of the large intestine.

    Diverticulitis can usually be diagnosed with a CT scan and can be monitored with a colonoscopy (as seen in Figure 15.7.3). Mild diverticulitis may be treated with oral antibiotics and a short-term liquid diet. For severe cases, intravenous antibiotics, hospitalization, and complete bowel rest (no nourishment via the mouth) may be recommended. Complications such as abscess formation or perforation of the colon require surgery.

    Figure 15.7.3 You can see small diverticula in this image from a colonoscopy.

    Peptic Ulcer

    A peptic ulcer is a sore in the lining of the stomach or the duodenum (first part of the small intestine). If the ulcer occurs in the stomach, it is called a gastric ulcer. If it occurs in the duodenum, it is called a duodenal ulcer. The most common symptoms of peptic ulcers are upper abdominal pain that often occurs in the night and improves with eating. Other symptoms may include belching, vomiting, weight loss, and poor appetite. Many people with peptic ulcers, particularly older people, have no symptoms. Peptic ulcers are relatively common, with about ten per cent of people developing a peptic ulcer at some point in their life.

    The most common cause of peptic ulcers is infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which may be transmitted by food, contaminated water, or human saliva (for example, by kissing or sharing eating utensils). Surprisingly, the bacterial cause of peptic ulcers was not discovered until the 1980s. The scientists who made the discovery are Australians Robin Warren and Barry J. Marshall. Although the two scientists eventually won a Nobel Prize for their discovery, their hypothesis was poorly received at first. To demonstrate the validity of their discovery, Marshall used himself in an experiment. He drank a culture of bacteria from a peptic ulcer patient and developed symptoms of peptic ulcer in a matter of days. His symptoms resolved on their own within a couple of weeks, but, at his wife’s urging, he took antibiotics to kill any remaining bacteria. Marshall’s self-experiment was published in the Australian Medical Journal, and is among the most cited articles ever published in the journal. Figure 15.7.4 shows how H. pylori cause peptic ulcers.

    Figure 15.7.4 H.Pylori penetrate the protective mucus layer of the mucosa and damages the cells of the lower GI tract.

    Another relatively common cause of peptic ulcers is chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Additional contributing factors may include tobacco smoking and stress, although these factors have not been demonstrated conclusively to cause peptic ulcers independent of H. pylori infection. Contrary to popular belief, diet does not appear to play a role in either causing or preventing peptic ulcers. Eating spicy foods and drinking coffee and alcohol were once thought to cause peptic ulcers. These lifestyle choices are no longer thought to have much (if any) of an effect on the development of peptic ulcers.

    Peptic ulcers are typically diagnosed on the basis of symptoms or the presence of H. pylori in the GI tract. However, endoscopy (shown in Figure 15.7.5), which allows direct visualization of the stomach and duodenum with a camera, may be required for a definitive diagnosis. Peptic ulcers are usually treated with antibiotics to kill H. pylori, along with medications to temporarily decrease stomach acid and aid in healing. Unfortunately, H. pylori has developed resistance to commonly used antibiotics, so treatment is not always effective. If a peptic ulcer has penetrated so deep into the tissues that it causes a perforation of the wall of the stomach or duodenum, then emergency surgery is needed to repair the damage.

    Figure 15.7.5 A doctor inserts a tiny camera through a tube (called an endoscope) to examine a patient’s upper GI tract for peptic ulcers. He views the image created by the camera on a screen above the patient’s head.


    Biology Course Listing

    Please visit the Academic Timetable to see which courses are presently being offered and in which location(s). Not all courses listed below run every term or in all locations. For specific details about program requirements and degree regulations, please refer to the Academic Calendar.

    An examination of the biological principles underlying questions concerning biodiversity and evolution. Begins with a discussion of biodiversity and the implications of its loss. This is followed by consideration of the evolution of life on earth, exploring the underlying processes of natural selection and ecological interactions. Prerequisite: 4U Biology or its equivalent or permission of the department.

    Designed to explore the role of selected cellular and physiological systems in the maintenance of homeostasis in animals under varying environmental conditions, as well as the molecular basis of hereditary and environmental variation. Prerequisite: 4U Biology or its equivalent. Excludes BIOM 1000H.

    Designed to provide a basic understanding of the structure of the human body using a systems approach. In order to gain an appreciation of the complexity of the human body, it is examined on both a microscopic and macroscopic level. Prerequisite: 4U Biology and Chemistry. Recommended: 4U Kinesiology.

    Designed to provide a basic understanding of the function of the human body using a systems approach. A central theme is the mechanisms used to maintain homeostasis under normal, healthy conditions. Prerequisite: 4U Biology and Chemistry. Recommended: 4U Kinesiology, BIOL 1050H.

    The application of basic physical concepts to biological systems. Topics include forces and motion, energy and metabolism, thermodynamics, and fluid dynamics. Recommended: 4U Math. Not for credit toward a major or minor in Physics.

    Provides experience in asking and answering questions in biology, exploring the power of the scientific method, and the importance of critical analysis. Examples involve a wide diversity of organisms and approaches, involving the use of a variety of statistical tools. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H or 1030H or BIOM 1000H.

    Develops a basic understanding of genetics. Mendelian inheritance, chromosome structure, genetic recombination, mutation, the structure of DNA, the nature of genes, and current topics in genetics are investigated using examples from plants, animals, insects, bacteria, fungi, and viruses. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1030H or BIOM 1000H, and 60% or higher in one of BIOL 1020H or 1050H.

    An introduction to cell structure and function, including the organization, physiology, architecture, and interactions of cells. Cellular mechanisms of differentiation, development, cancer, and the immune response are explored. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1030H or BIOM 1000H. Recommended: CHEM 1000H and 1010H.

    Cross-listed: GEOG-2080H, ERSC-2080H

    An introduction to the diversity of invertebrate animals, emphasizing their evolutionary relationships and functional, behavioural, and ecological aspects of their biology. An emphasis is also placed on field techniques of collection and identification of various invertebrate groups. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H or 1030H or BIOM 1000H.

    An introduction to the diversity of vertebrate animals, emphasizing their evolutionary relationships and functional, behavioural, and ecological aspects of their biology. Required dissections. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H or 1030H or BIOM 1000H.

    Through didactic classroom lecturing, hands-on laboratories, use of models, and computer-based software examples, students take a regional approach to examine the anatomy and neural control of the musculoskeletal system. Special emphasis is on learning how the various regional structures contribute (both individually and synergistically) toward producing movement patterns. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1051H. Open only to students in the Kinesiology program.

    An examination of the interactions between organisms and their environment at the levels of the population, community, and ecosystem. Covers basic concepts, theories, and methods used in ecology and the application of these to ecological and environmental problems. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H.

    Concepts of exercise physiology with an emphasis on the biochemical, circulatory, respiratory and musculoskeletal adaptations to both acute and chronic bouts of physical activity and exercise and its relation. Special attention is put upon the application of the physiological principles of conditioning for health promotion in an aging population. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1051H. Open only to students in the Kinesiology program.

    An examination of the importance of plants in society. Topics include an in-depth look at the role of plants in human population growth, biotechnology, food safety, medicines, and commercial products. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H.

    Introduces key molecules and concepts in biochemistry. Topics include the properties of water, the thermodynamics of biological systems, and the behaviour of biomolecules in water. Focuses on each of the four major classes of biomolecules-proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids-as they apply to biological systems. Prerequisite: CHEM 1000H and 1010H.

    An exploration of the scientific basis and ecology of agriculture. Abiotic and biotic factors influencing crop productivity, species interactions, energetics, nutrient cycling, cropping systems management and landscape diversity are considered. Traditional, conventional, and intense systems are reviewed in the context of sustainability. Prerequisite: BIOL 1020H or both ERSC 1010H and 1020H. Recommended: SAFS 1001H, BIOL 1030H. Excludes ERSC-SAFS 3350H.

    Cross-listed: ERSC-2350H, SAFS-2350H

    A study of the pattern of the evolution of life over the past billion years focusing on key events and transitions, and the underlying processes that made them happen. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in BIOL 2050H.

    The science behind environmental issues that are primarily biological in nature, including biodiversity, habitat loss, invasive species, and toxicity. Intended for prospective educators, natural area interpreters, and environmental communicators. Prerequisite: 5.0 university credits. Not for credit toward a major or minor in Biology. Excludes ERSC-BIOL 2700Y.

    Cross-listed: ERSC-2701H, EDUC-2701H

    The science behind environmental issues that are primarily physical or chemical in nature, including energy conservation, global warming, and air and water pollution. Intended for prospective educators, nature interpreters, and others interested in working with the public on environmental stewardship and sustainability initiatives. Prerequisite: 5.0 university credits ERSC-BIOL 2701H highly recommended. Not for credit toward a major or minor in Biology. Excludes ERSC-BIOL 2700Y.

    Cross-listed: ERSC-2702H, EDUC-2702H

    Examines the theoretical foundations and techniques of DNA analysis with leading-edge technology in light of forensic cases. Students learn the theory and practice of generating forensic DNA evidence. Prerequisite: FRSC-BIOL 2050H, FRSC-BIOL 3700H, BIOL 3080H.

    A study of the four basic animal tissue types and how these tissues are subsequently organized into organ systems. An important emphasis is the relation of tissue form to function. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits and 60% or higher in BIOL 2070H or permission of instructor.

    A study of the ecology of freshwater ecosystems, biology, geochemistry, and physics of freshwater lakes, rivers, and streams. Field trips. Prerequisite:: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL-ERSC 2260H, or permission of instructor. Recommended: CHEM 1000H and 1010H.

    Explores the ecological properties of rivers and streams. Theoretical concepts of river function are used as foundations for developing knowledge of aquatic communities. Also considers problems in conservation and management of river and stream ecosystems, and addresses how ecological principles are applied to these problems. Prerequisite: Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL-ERSC 2260H, or permission of instructor. Recommended: CHEM 1000H and 1010H.

    Fundamental concepts in molecular biology with emphasis on the exploration of structure, function, and cellular synthesis of DNA and RNA. Techniques in recombinant DNA technology as well as their applications in biomedical, forensic, and pharmaceutical research are discussed. Basic techniques in molecular biology and scientific calculations are also introduced. Prerequisite: Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2050H and a pass in both CHEM 1000H and 1010H.

    An introduction to the organization and diversity of insects. Lectures emphasize insect physiology, ecology, and behaviour. An insect collecting kit for making required insect collection will be available for cash deposit from the Biology Department in April preceding the beginnning of the course. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H and 60% or higher in one of BIOL 1030H or BIOM 1000H, or permission of instructor.

    The biology of fishes with emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that affect their life histories, distribution, population dynamics, feeding, and growth. Field work. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL-ERSC 2260H, or permission of instructor. Strongly recommended: MATH 1051H, MATH 1052H, BIOL-ERSC-GEOG 2080H.

    Ancient biomolecules (proteins, lipids, DNA), the conditions under which they preserve, how they are isolated and analyzed. Topics include stable isotopes, ancient DNA, proteomics, and organic residue analysis. Labs provide students with hands-on experience with techniques commonly used in archaeological science (emphasis on bone chemistry). Prerequisite: ANTH 2150H, or 2.5 ANTH credits and three of BIOL 1020H, BIOL 1030H, CHEM 1000H, GEOG 1040H, or PHYS 1001H.

    Cross-listed: ANTH-3153H, FRSC-3153H

    Examines major transitions in the evolution of terrestrial plants with a focus on the evolutionary relationships among the main lineages of the flowering plants and the mechanisms underlying the tremendous diversity of this group. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2600H, or permission of instructor.

    Due to a sessile nature, plant functioning is unique and highly dynamic. Emphasizing the flowering plants, this course provides an introduction to plant anatomy, physiology, and molecular biology. It examines the mechanisms by which plants work and survive in their role as energy providers to the biosphere. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 1020H and at least 1.0 BIOL credit at the 2000 level, or permission of instructor. Strongly recommended: BIOL 3170H. Excludes BIOL-SAFS 3530H.

    An intensive coverage of the central nervous system, its anatomy, and physiological interactions. Emphasizes subcortical and cortical brain structures and their functional characteristics. Prerequisite: 8.0 university credits including a pass in PSYC 2200H or 60% or higher in one of BIOL 2070H, 2110H, 2130H, or 3840H.

    An examination of the relationship between brain function and psychological processes, drawing heavily from contemporary research involving humans and animals and describing the neural bases for such psychological processes as learning, memory, language, and emotion. Special attention is given to behavioural abnormalities resulting from brain pathology. Prerequisite: 8.0 university credits including PSYC 2200H or PSYC-BIOL 3210H.

    Looks at how integrated pest management methods (IPM) are applied to agricultural insect pests. Students will examine the principles of IPM, the role of insects in soil ecology, insects as allies in pest management and as pollinators, monitoring and sampling, and control methods (pesticide and organic). Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including BIOL 1020H or permission of instructor. Excludes SAFS-BIOL 3110H.

    An introduction to microbiology with consideration given to the diversity of microscopic forms, their presence in various habitats, and their impact on humanity. Heavy emphasis is placed on laboratory work. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2070H, or permission of instructor.

    Exploration of the scientific basis and practical need for biomonitoring frames the field application of biomonitoring protocols for community clients in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Prerequisite: ERSC 2240H or 2230H or equivalent or ERSC-BIOL 2260H.

    The structure and function or proteins, key protein biophysical methods, and enzyme mechanisms are treated in detail. Students use web-based resources such as ExPASy and the Protein Data Bank, and gain practical laboratory experience in bioseparations and the determination of enzyme rate parameters. Prerequisite: CHEM-BIOL 2300H, and one of CHEM-2100H or 2110H.

    The key topics are biological processes that produce and use high-energy biomolecules. These include membrane transport, multienzyme pathways, and their regulation. With their skills acquired in CHEM-BIOL 3310H, students are given more freedom for independent laboratory work in devising and executing their own enzyme purification scheme. Prerequisite: CHEM-BIOL 3310H. Excludes CHEM-BIOL 3300H.

    Many insect species associated with the process of decay of corpses and their maggots have been used as an important tool for identifying both the timing and location of death. This course explores the relationship between insects and the decay of corpses. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 1030H or BIOM 1000H and 1.0 BIOL credit at the 2000 level, or permission of instructor.

    An introduction to the biology of amphibians and reptiles. Includes an overview of past and current diversity, the use of amphibians and reptiles as model organisms for biological research, the importance of these animals in ecological communities, and issues in conservation and management. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits of which 2.0 must be BIOL credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2260H.

    An introduction to the ecological, physiological, and evolutionary mechanisms which influence the behaviour of animals, with particular emphasis on kin selection and co-evolution. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in each of BIOL-ERSC 2260H and BIOL 2600H, and at least one additional 0.5 BIOL credit at the 2000 level or permission of instructor.

    Focuses on farming methods and requirements for organic production. The importance of ecological processes, biodiversity, rotation, and organic amendments in organic crop production will be discussed. The standards, certification, packaging, and diversity of markets for organic foods will be emphasized. Mandatory field trips to organic farms. Field trip fee: 30. Prerequisite: SAFS 1001H (2001H) and ERSC-SAFS 2350H.

    Cross-listed: SAFS-3370H, ERSC-3370H

    Examines current theoretical and applied problems in ecology. Emphasis is placed on developing problemsolving skills, critical evaluation of ecological studies, modelling, and an in-depth look at recent advances in theories and laboratory and field techniques used in solving problems in individual, population, community, and ecosystem ecology. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL-ERSC 2260H, or permission of instructor.

    A lab-based introduction to the anatomy and biology of the human skeleton. Topics include basic skeletal anatomy, bone biology and development, the functional morphology of bones, identification of complete and fragmentary bones, and skeletal pathology. Prerequisite: ANTH 2410H (or 2400Y). Excludes ANTH-BIOL-FRSC 3415Y, 3420H.

    Cross-listed: ANTH-3404H, FRSC-3404H

    An examination of the prospects for extraterrestrial life, based primarily on material from astronomy, biology, and planetary science. Topics include the origin and evolution of life on Earth, extremophiles, the habitability of Mars and Jovian moons, the nature and habitability of exoplanets, SETI, the Drake equation, and the Fermi paradox. Prerequisite: 5.0 university credits including two of BIOL 1020H, BIOL 1030H, PHYS 1510H, PHYS 1520H. Excludes PHYS 2510H. Not for credit toward a major or minor in Physics.

    The mechanisms of plant functioning from the molecular to the whole plant level. Fundamental processes such as photosynthesis, respiration, plant water relations, stomata physiology, mineral nutrition, plant hormone functions, seed germination and dormancy, and environmental stress physiology. Prerequisite: Both SAFS 1001H and 1002H or BIOL 1020H. Excludes BIOL 3180H.

    Ecological genetics uses genetic data to investigate ecological and evolutionary processes in natural populations. This course uses theoretical and "real world" approaches to investigate topics that include natural selection and adaptation, behavioural ecology, conservation genetics, invasive species, and phylogeography. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including a minimum 60% in each of BIOL-FRSC 2050H, BIOL-ERSC 2260H, and BIOL 2600H. Excludes BIOL-FRSC 3620H, 3700H.

    Epidemiology is the systematic study of human diseases and their causes and the application of what is learned to improve health. This course reviews the basic principles and methods of epidemiology, with an emphasis on critical thinking and application to public health and clinical research. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2000H or a pass in NURS 2030H, MATH 2560H, or PSYC 2018H.

    Nutrition is the integrative science of what foods our body requires for health, growth, maintenance and reproduction. This course covers the fundamentals of human nutrition, critically assesses evidence underlying dietary claims, and enables students to think critically about the complex interrelationships between food, nutrition, health, and society. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 1051H and 2070H.

    Introduces students to the application of genetics to the study of taxonomy, structure of natural populations, mating systems, and forensics. Topics include the molecular tools that quantify genetic variation, mathematical models of population structure, paternity analysis, and DNA fingerprinting. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including FRSC-BIOL 2050H, or permission of instructor. Excludes FRSC-BIOL 3620H, BIOL 3600H.

    The processes of digestion, osmoregulation and excretion, circulatory systems and gaseous exchange, respiration, metabolism, and their control are considered. Uses a comparative approach, first discussing the basic principles of the physiology of these processes and then examining the means whereby different organisms perform them. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2070H and a pass in CHEM 1000H and 1010H, or permission of instructor. Strongly recommended: CHEM 2300H and Animal Care Course.

    An examination of fundamental concepts in sensory, endocrine, muscular, and reproductive physiology. Prerequisite: 7.5 university credits including 60% or higher in BIOL 2070H and a pass in CHEM 1000H and 1010H, or permission of instructor.

    Students are placed in research projects with community organizations in the Peterborough area. Each placement is supervised jointly by a faculty member and a representative of a community organization. For details see Community-Based Research Program (p. 265). Prerequisite: A minimum cumulative average of 75% and at least 3.0 BIOL credits taught by members of the Trent Biology Department.

    Students are placed in research projects with community organizations in the Peterborough area. Each placement is supervised jointly by a faculty member and a representative of a community organization. For details see Community-Based Research Program (p. 265). Prerequisite: A minimum cumulative average of 75% and at least 3.0 BIOL credits taught by members of the Trent Biology Department.

    This course provides an opportunity for more intensive or broader study of a selected topic under the guidance of a faculty member. Open to students who have earned at least 3.0 credits in Biology courses taught by members of the Trent Biology department and have achieved a cumulative average of at least 75% in Biology courses completed. Application forms are available from the Biology Office. All University deadlines as specified in the University Calendar apply. These courses may not be taken in the same academic session as BIOL 4900Y, 4901H, 4902H and 4903H.

    This course provides an opportunity for more intensive or broader study of a selected topic under the guidance of a faculty member. Open to students who have earned at least 3.0 credits in Biology courses taught by members of the Trent Biology department and have achieved a cumulative average of at least 75% in Biology courses completed. Application forms are available from the Biology Office. All University deadlines as specified in the University Calendar apply. These courses may not be taken in the same academic session as BIOL 4900Y, 4901H, 4902H and 4903H.

    This course provides an opportunity for more intensive or broader study of a selected topic under the guidance of a faculty member. Open to students who have earned at least 3.0 credits in Biology courses taught by members of the Trent Biology department and have achieved a cumulative average of at least 75% in Biology courses completed. Application forms are available from the Biology Office. All University deadlines as specified in the University Calendar apply. These courses may not be taken in the same academic session as BIOL 4900Y, 4901H, 4902H and 4903H.

    Students investigate a specific field of interest under the guidance of a faculty member. BIOL 4020D is a double credit in Biology. BIOL 4010Y is a single credit because the same thesis is submitted to the other department/program in a joint-major or is submitted in conjunction with BIOL 4400Y. Prerequisite: 15.0 university credits the Animal Care Course (p. 20), if applicable a minimum average of 75% in BIOL courses completed and agreement of a faculty member to supervise the project. (In some cases, it may be possible to take BIOL 4020D with an overall average of 70% in Biology courses if recommended by a faculty member willing to supervise it.) To be accepted into a joint thesis course, the student must meet the requirements of both programs. Applications may be obtained from the department website at trentu.ca/biology/experience.

    Students investigate a specific field of interest under the guidance of a faculty member. BIOL 4020D is a double credit in Biology. BIOL 4010Y is a single credit because the same thesis is submitted to the other department/program in a joint-major or is submitted in conjunction with BIOL 4400Y. Prerequisite: 15.0 university credits the Animal Care Course (p. 20), if applicable a minimum average of 75% in BIOL courses completed and agreement of a faculty member to supervise the project. (In some cases, it may be possible to take BIOL 4020D with an overall average of 70% in Biology courses if recommended by a faculty member willing to supervise it.) To be accepted into a joint thesis course, the student must meet the requirements of both programs. Applications may be obtained from the department website at trentu.ca/biology/experience.

    Theoretical and practical instruction in design of research projects, with emphasis on appropriate statistical methods through the use of the statistical program R. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including one of MATH 1052H (or 1050Y) or BIOL-GEOG-ERSC 2080H. Excludes GEOG 3030H.

    At least 16 hours per week otherwise as CHEM 4030Y. May not be combined with any other project courses for credit toward the Biochemistry & Molecular Biology degree. Prerequisite: An average of 75% in all previous Chemistry courses and permission of instructor.

    Examines the chemistry of freshwater systems. Chemical and physical processes that lead to changes in water quality are discussed. The emphasis is on the concentrations and distributions of contaminants. Topics include watershed contributions of chemicals, acidification and the carbonate system, weathering, redox chemistry, trace materials, and synthetic organic contaminants. Prerequisite: ERSC 2230H or ERSC-CHEM 2620H (or 2600Y).

    Cross-listed: ERSC-4060H, GEOG-4060H

    Discusses approaches to predicting the fate of contaminants in aquatic systems. Basic assumptions and algorithms of fate models for toxic metals and organic xenobiotics are examined and students get hands-on experience in applying recent models to case studies. Prerequisite: ERSC-GEOG-BIOL 4060H.

    Cross-listed: ERSC-4070H, GEOG-4070H

    An exploration of the cellular and molecular bases of embryonic development. Emphasis is placed on how the intricate and diverse processes of embryogenesis are dependent on common mechanisms, including cell division, cell death, adhesion, migration, gene expression, and intra- and inter-cellular signalling. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 2070H.

    An examination of current concepts of the biology, epidemiology, and evolution of infectious diseases. Topics include emerging disease, the meaning of symptoms, effects of infectious disease on human evolution, Darwinian medicine, vaccines, and virulence. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits.

    Focuses on fundamental aspects of human cell biology ranging from organelle function to intercellular communication. Recent technological advances in the field are also discussed. The goal of this course is to develop a holistic view of the cell to enable an understanding of its importance to life and human disease. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 2050H, 2070H, and 3080H.

    An introduction to the study of birds. Covers broad areas in ornithology, including field identification, systematics, ecology, behaviour, anatomy, physiology, management, and conservation. Field trip at cost to student. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including at least 2.0 BIOL credits at the 2000 level.

    An introduction to the immune system, including a discussion of the organs, cells, and molecules that constitute, as well as regulate, the immune system. Health-related aspects of the immune system, such as immunodeficiency, tumour immunology, and allergies are also explored. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 2070H.

    An exploration of the evolution, anatomy, ecology, behaviour, and management of terrestrial mammals. Labs are devoted to field techniques and species identification, with emphasis on Canadian forms. One-day field trip at cost to the student. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 2110H and BIOL-ERSC 2260H.

    Examines the physiological and biochemical adaptations to acute and chronic exercise with specific emphasis placed upon the oxygen transport system. The effects of a variety of conditions including age, gender, environmental conditions, and disease on these adaptations are also considered. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 1051H or 3830H.

    Covers classic topics in mathematical biology, including population biology, epidemiology, and mathematical ecology of a single or interacting species. The course addresses modeling of life-science problems by using difference/differential equations and applications of dynamical systems theories. Prerequisite: MATH-PHYS 2150H.

    Principles and practices of fisheries assessment and management, including an examination of management problems in freshwater and marine fisheries from ecological, socio-economic, and policy perspectives. Topics include stock assessment techniques, stocking and fertilization, management of warmwater and coldwater species, and local management initiatives. Prerequisite: 10.0 university credits including one of ERSC-BIOL 2260H or ERSC 2210H or 2240H. Recommended: One of ERSC 3510H or BIOL 3050H or 3140H. Students who have successfully completed ERST-CAST 2520H and 2525H may take the course, but must be prepared to do additional background reading.

    Examines plant nutrition, soil fertility, and fertilizer management, with a focus on essential macronutrients. Topics include biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulphur in crop production. Sustainable management of nutrients for optimum productivity and minimum impact on the environment will be discussed. Prerequisite: GEOG-ERSC-SAFS 3560H.

    Cross-listed: SAFS-4270H, ERSC-4270H, GEOG-4270H

    The essential biological roles of metals are usually acknowledged but seldom discussed in most biochemistry courses. Includes an introduction to coordination chemistry and a survey of the roles of metals in enzyme catalysis, oxygen transport, photosynthesis, cell mobility, gene expression, and environmental toxicity. Prerequisite: CHEM-BIOL 3310H and 3320H (3300H) or CHEM 2200H and CHEM-BIOL 2300H.

    A survey of the questions that are of greatest interest to biochemists. Relies extensively on reading and understanding primary literature sources published within the last four years. Students give presentations in class as part of the course evaluation. Prerequisite: CHEM-BIOL 3310H and 3320H (3300H).

    An introduction to human pharmacology divided into two sections: pharmaco-kinetics and pharmacodynamics. Drugs to be studied include mainstream medications such as antibiotics, ethanol, and drugs used in the treatment of pain, high blood pressure, asthma, ulcers, and depression, as well as a brief discussion of alternative medications. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including both CHEM 1000H and 1010H and one of BIOL 3830H or 3840H.

    Emphasizes the causes and consequences of global environmental change and their interactions with ecological processes in freshwater ecosystems. Issues such as biodiversity, population growth and water use, global warming, land use, emergent diseases, dams, aquaculture, fisheries, water supply, and sustainability are discussed. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including MATH 1052H (or 1050Y) and one of BIOL 2000H or BIOL-ERSC 2260H. Recommended: GEOG-BIOL-ERSC 2080H.

    Biological stoichiometry is the study of balance of energy and multiple chemical elements in living systems including its effects on organismal biochemistry, nutrition, physiology, and ecological dynamics. This course focuses on the principles, application, and recent advances in the field of biological stoichiometry. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including one of BIOL 2070H or BIOL-ERSC 2260H.

    Introduces the symptoms of various diseases and the disordered physiological processes that cause these symptoms. Seminars examine specific diseases through discussion of case studies. By the end of the course, students should be able to understand and describe how physiological processes are altered in various common diseased states. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses 10.0 university credits including BIOL 3830H or BIOL 3840H or BIOL 1051H plus 2.0 BIOL credits at the 2000 level. Excludes BIOL 4350H, 4360H.

    Examines the impact of microorganisms on scientific research, the environment, and human health and disease. Particular emphasis is placed on new or emerging areas of microbiology such as microbial ecology, microbial evolution, the human microbiome, and antibiotic resistance. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 3250H.

    An introduction to mechanisms controlling gene expression and applications of recombinant DNA technology. Topics include transcription initiation and post-transcriptional regulation, structure of transcription factors, and specific examples of genetic switches in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Seminars include discussion and analysis of journal articles on gene expression research. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 3080H.

    A focus on the causes and consequences of reductions to biodiversity and the strategies to counterbalance these reductions from both their biological and human dimensions. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits. Strongly recommended: BIOL-ERSC 2260H.

    An apprenticeship at a collaborating agency working in biological conservation. Students assist in a project pertaining to research and conservation of living things for the equivalent of approximately six hours per week. Evaluation is based on a written appraisal from the agency, as well as a written report and an oral presentation. Open only to Honours students in Biology or Conservation Biology. Prerequisite: 13.5 university credits, a minimum cumulative average of 75%, BIOL 3600H (or 3620H), and BIOL-ERSC 2260H or permission of instructor. Co-requisite: BIOL-ERSC 4390H. Enrolment is limited and competitive. Students must apply in the academic year before enrolment in the course. Application forms may be obtained from the department website at trentu.ca/biology/experience and must be submitted to the placement officer. BIOL 4400Y may be taken jointly with BIOL 4010Y where the project warrants, but the student may not receive credit for a single-credit thesis in another department or program.

    Examines human dietary behaviour as a product of interactions among ecology, culture, and biology. It focuses on basic nutritional and ecological principles, diet from evolutionary, comparative, and historical perspectives, cultural factors influencing diet, food as medicine, and the impact of under-nutrition on human physiology and behaviour. Prerequisite: ANTH 2410H (or 2400Y) or permission of instructor.

    Cross-listed: ANTH-4440H, SAFS-4440H

    Analysis of animal and plant population demography, including theoretical population ecology, population size and survival estimation, patterns and mechanisms in population growth and regulation, multispecies population dynamics, harvesting, and population projection models. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 3380H.

    Examines the quantitative assessment of biological parameters impacting species and populations at risk under governmental species-at-risk legislation. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL-FRSC 2050H or BIOL 2260H.

    Examines the biology of animal and plant invasions, focusing on the life history adaptations and dispersal strategies which contribute to their success at both the individual and population levels. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL-ERSC 2260H.

    Students gain knowledge of microbes and other biological agents used in criminal endeavours and an overview of the methods used to detect crimes involving biological agents and link them to individual perpetrators. Bioterrorism and agricultural bioterrorism are discussed. Prerequisite: 60% or higher in FRSC 1010H and 1011H and one of BIOL 3080H, FRSC 3000H, FRSC 3111H, or BIOL 3250H.

    This seminar-based course introduces students to the application of DNA profiling to forensics, medical genetics, and natural resource management (molecular ecology/conservation genetics). Prerequisite: 10.0 university credits including BIOL-FRSC 3700H (or 3620H).

    Explores the processes shaping adaptive evolution and key aspects of organismal fitness, including life spans, sex, and gender. Seminars reinforce lecture material, but also cover additional topics. Two writing assignments provide opportunities for independent study. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 2600H and BIOL-ERSC 2260H.

    Epigenetics is the study of gene functions that are mitotically and/or meiotically heritable, but which do not entail a change in the sequence of DNA. This course reviews these epigenetics mechanisms and discusses how they influence cellular identity, development, predisposition to disease, tumorigenesis, and onset of neurological disorders. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including BIOL 3080H.

    Examines the implications of climate change for agriculture, including its impacts on agricultural production, and the role of agriculture as both a producer of greenhouse gases and a potential mitigating agent in climate change. Emphasis is on climate and crop growth simulation modelling and scenarios for mitigation and adaptation. Prerequisite: ERSC-SAFS 2002H or 3002H.

    Examines the impact of chronic diseases on mobility, physical activity, and exercise, and how to assess physical function. Also examines the impact of exercise on chronic disease prevention, progression, and treatment ("exercise as medicine"). Students are introduced to clinical research in exercise and chronic disease. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses 10.0 university credits one of BIOL 1051H, 3830H, or 3840H and one of BIOL 2000H, PSYC 2018H, or PSYC 2019H. BIOL 4190H recommended.

    Biological data has grown in size and complexity. Bioinformatics-the application of computer programming to the management and analysis of biological information-is necessary for storing, manipulating, and analyzing large datasets. A tutorial-based computer lab focusing on genome sequence data allows students to learn the basics of computer programming and bioinformatics. Prerequisite: FRSC-BIOL 2050H, 4600H, and one of FRSC-BIOL 3000H or FRSC 3111H.

    Explores the interactions between the central nervous and endocrine systems, focusing on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Examines the control of hormone release, including neurotransmitter modulation and steroid feedback during both homeostatic and stressor-induced states. Also, the interaction among stressors, behaviour, the endocrine system, and disease is considered. Prerequisite: A minimum overall average of 65% in completed BIOL courses and 10.0 university credits including one of BIOL 1051H, BIOL 3840H, or BIOL-PSYC 3210H.

    A lab-based course focused on soil organisms and soil biodiversity emphasis on the role of organisms in nutrient cycles and plant growth promotion using a hands-on approach to investigate key soil functions. Approaches for analyzing microbial populations and activities in the environment, including molecular techniques are covered. Prerequisite: One of SAFS 1001H, ERSC 1010H, or BIOL 1020H and 1.0 science credit at the 2000 level or beyond in SAFS, ERSC, CHEM, or BIOL. Excludes SAFS 4840H.



Comments:

  1. Culain

    I recommend that you go to the site where there are many articles on the topic that interests you.

  2. Tauzshura

    It should be in the quotation book

  3. Alistair

    Oh we got on with this



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