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1.3: Intro to Evolution - Biology

1.3: Intro to Evolution - Biology



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Learning Objectives

  • Describe the role of evolution in the history of life.
  • Describe the role of natural selection in evolution.

The history of life on Earth goes back more than three and a half billion years. This past serves as a key to understanding the diversity of life. A unifying theme that can be employed throughout this course to boost biology from an overwhelming sea of facts to a coherent study of life is the theory of evolution. Evolution explains both the diversity and unity of life. Through time, some species evolved adaptations that increased their ability to survive and reproduce in their environment. This gave them an evolutionary advantage to other species. Natural selection, the most dominant evolutionary force, is a main mechanism that is responsible for the diversity of species on Earth today. Yet, it is through evolution that we also understand the unity of all life. All living organisms today can be followed back to a common ancestor. Scientific evidence from this is extensive and includes data from fossils, genetics, cell biology, and molecular biology, just to name a few. Through descent with modification, our common ancestors gave rise to the species we see on Earth today.

Evolution

Evolution can be defined as the change in the genetic make up of a population over time (or, for short, change over time). It is important to note that the change happens from one generation to the next. Thus, an individual cannot evolve because their genes do not change throughout their lifetime. However, a population, a community, or an ecosystem can change over time, as can a species or a group of species. The time it takes for evolution to occur is better described as generation time. This can be very short (minutes for a bacterium), or very long (a century or more for a sea turtle). It is the time it takes for one generation of individuals to reproduce and pass their genes down to the next generation. Charles Darwin's book "On the Origin of Species" published in 1859 described and popularized the theory of evolution and proposed a mechanism for evolution he called natural selection. Independently, Alfred Russell Wallace also introduced the concept of natural selection.

Natural Selection

There are many forces or mechanisms that cause evolution. However, natural selection is a key mechanism as it is the one that produces adaptive traits. For natural selection to occur, several conditions must be met:

  1. The population must contain genetic variation in the trait. This means the differences in the traits of the individuals within the population.
  2. The trait must be heritable. This means the individual receives the genetic information for the specific trait from their parent(s).
  3. There must be variation in fitness as a result of the trait. This means that some traits result in the individuals with higher reproductive success (they have more offspring) than others.

If these three criteria are met, individuals with the most adaptive trait for the current environment will have more offspring, and thus the adaptive traits will accumulate in the environment.

Attribution

Curated and authored by Kammy Algiers (CC-BY-NC)


1.3: What is Biological Anthropology

The focus of this book is the anthropological subdiscipline of biological anthropology, which is the study of the human species from a biological perspective. Biological anthropology uses a scientific and evolutionary approach to answer many of the same questions all anthropologists are concerned with: What does it mean to be human? Where do we come from? Who are we today? Biological anthropologists are concerned with exploring how humans vary biologically, how humans adapt to their changing environments, and how humans have evolved over time and continue to evolve today. Some biological anthropologists also study nonhuman primates to learn about what we have in common and how we differ.

Figure (PageIndex<1>): An anthropometric device used to measure a subject&rsquos head, circa 1913.

You may have heard biological anthropology referred to by another name&mdashphysical anthropology. Physical anthropology is an area of research that dates to as far back as the eighteenth century, when it focused mostly on physical variation among humans. Some early physical anthropologists were also physicians interested in comparing and contrasting human skeletons. These researchers dedicated themselves to measuring bodies and skulls (anthropometry and craniometry) in great detail. Many also acted under the misguided and oftentimes racist belief that human biological races existed and it was possible to differentiate between, or even rank, such races by measuring differences in human anatomy. Most anthropologists today agree that there are no biological human races and that all humans alive today are members of the same species and subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. We recognize that the differences we can see between peoples&rsquo bodies are due to a wide variety of factors, including our environment, our diet, the activities we engage in, and our genetic makeup.

The subdiscipline has changed a great deal since these early years. Biological anthropologists no longer set out to identify human differences in order to assign people to groups, like races. The focus is instead understanding how and why human and primate variation developed through evolutionary processes. The name for the subdiscipline has transitioned in recent years to reflect these changes. Many believe the term biological anthropology better reflects the subdiscipline&rsquos focus today, which includes genetic and molecular research. Nevertheless, the term physical anthropology is still common.


Homology

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Homology, in biology, similarity of the structure, physiology, or development of different species of organisms based upon their descent from a common evolutionary ancestor. Homology is contrasted with analogy, which is a functional similarity of structure based not upon common evolutionary origins but upon mere similarity of use. Thus the forelimbs of such widely differing mammals as humans, bats, and deer are homologous the form of construction and the number of bones in these varying limbs are practically identical, and represent adaptive modifications of the forelimb structure of their common early mammalian ancestors. Analogous structures, on the other hand, can be represented by the wings of birds and of insects the structures are used for flight in both types of organisms, but they have no common ancestral origin at the beginning of their evolutionary development. A 19th-century British biologist, Sir Richard Owen, was the first to define both homology and analogy in precise terms.

When two or more organs or structures are basically similar to each other in construction but are modified to perform different functions, they are said to be serially homologous. An example of this is a bat’s wing and a whale’s flipper. Both originated in the forelimbs of early mammalian ancestors, but they have undergone different evolutionary modification to perform the radically different tasks of flying and swimming, respectively. Sometimes it is unclear whether similarities in structure in different organisms are analogous or homologous. An example of this is the wings of bats and birds. These structures are homologous in that they are in both cases modifications of the forelimb bone structure of early reptiles. But birds’ wings differ from those of bats in the number of digits and in having feathers for flight while bats have none. And most importantly, the power of flight arose independently in these two different classes of vertebrates in birds while they were evolving from early reptiles, and in bats after their mammalian ancestors had already completely differentiated from reptiles. Thus, the wings of bats and birds can be viewed as analogous rather than homologous upon a more rigorous scrutiny of their morphological differences and evolutionary origins.


Upper Division

Biochemistry

BIBC 100. Structural Biochemistry (4)

The structure and function of biomolecules. Includes protein conformation, dynamics, and function enzymatic catalysis, enzyme kinetics, and allosteric regulation lipids and membranes sugars and polysaccharides and nucleic acids. Prerequisites: CHEM 40A or CHEM 140A or BENG 120 and CHEM 40B or CHEM 140B or BENG 120. Note: Students may not receive credit for both BIBC 100 and CHEM 114A.

BIBC 102. Metabolic Biochemistry (4)

Energy-producing pathways–glycolysis, the TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, photosynthesis, and fatty acid oxidation and biosynthetic pathways–gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Nitrogen metabolism, urea cycle, amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and metabolism of macromolecules. Prerequisites:CHEM 40A or CHEM 140A or BENG 120 and CHEM 40B or CHEM 140B or BENG 120. Note: Students may not receive credit for both BIBC 102 and CHEM 114B.

BIBC 103. Biochemical Techniques (4)

Introductory laboratory course in current principles and techniques applicable to research problems in biochemistry and molecular biology. Techniques include protein and nucleic acid purification identification methods such as centrifugation, chromatography, and electrophoresis immunological, spectrophotometric, and enzymatic methods. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: BILD 1. Note: Students may not receive credit for BIBC 103 after taking CHEM 108. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student’s being dropped from the course roster.

Elaborates the relationship between diet and human metabolism, physiology, health, and disease. Covers the functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, vitamins, and minerals, and discusses dietary influences on cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and cancer. Prerequisites: BIBC 102 or CHEM 114B.

BIBC 140. Our Energy Future—Sustainable Energy Solutions (4)

Course will provide an overview of energy production and utilization and the consequences of this on the economy and environment. The course will introduce renewable energy technologies including biofuels, and explores the social, economic, and political aspects of energy use. Prerequisites: BILD 1.

BIBC 151. Chemistry of Biological Interactions (4)

Nearly all interactions between organisms, including host-pathogen interactions and mate attraction, have a chemical basis. Plants and microorganisms are the dominant life forms on earth and remain a major source of pharmaceutical leads. Students in this course will utilize biochemical methods to extract, fractionate, and analyze plant and microbial compounds of medicinal and ecological significance including antibiotics, growth regulators, toxins, and signaling molecules. Students use own laptops. Course requires field studies. Transportation not provided by the university. Students must comply with all risk management policies and procedures. Course materials fees will be applied. Prerequisites: BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

BIBC 194. Advanced Topics in Modern Biology: Biochemistry (2)

Course will vary in title and content. Students are expected to actively participate in course discussions, read, and analyze primary literature. Current descriptions and subtitles may be found on the Schedule of Classes and the Division of Biological Sciences website. Students may receive credit in 194 courses a total of four times as topics vary. Students may not receive credit for the same topic. Prerequisites: BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

Genetics, Cellular and Developmental Biology of Plants and Animals

An introduction to the principles of heredity emphasizing diploid organisms. Topics include Mendelian inheritance and deviations from classical Mendelian ratios, pedigree analysis, gene interactions, gene mutation, linkage and gene mapping, reverse genetics, population genetics, and quantitative genetics. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 3.

BICD 101. Eukaryotic Genetics Laboratory (4)

Course implements key concepts in genetics and genomics such as performing and interpreting results of genetic crosses, analyzing mutations and their phenotypic consequences, analyzing the genetic basis of quantitative traits, and analyzing genome sequences in relation to phenotypic variation. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student being dropped from the course roster. Recommended preparation: BICD 100. Prerequisites: BILD 1.

BICD 102. Genetic Inquiry (4)

Students will interact with primary literature in genetics through reading, writing, and in-class discussions. The focus will be to learn to analyze research data and develop critical thinking skills, while applying concepts in genetics to understand scientific discoveries. Topics may vary from quarter to quarter examples include but are not limited to genetic basis of complex human traits or genetics and evolution of form and function in organisms. Prerequisites: BICD 100 and MATH 11.

BICD 104. Genetic Neurobiology (4)

This course will survey studies of the genetic influences on behavior and the use of genetic tools to study behavior and neurobiology, with particular emphasis on studies of the mechanisms underlying various behaviors. Studies of model organisms (bacteria, paramecium, C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice) will be discussed along with their implications for understanding human behavior. The material is highly interdisciplinary, reflecting the variety of experimental approaches to the subject. Prerequisites: BILD 2 and BICD 100.

The structure and function of cells and cell organelles, cell growth and division, motility, cell differentiation and specialization. Prerequisites: BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

BICD 112. Stem Cells and Regeneration (4)

Stem cells maintain homeostasis of nearly all organ systems and the regenerative capacity of certain organisms. Course explores the paradigm of the tissue-specific stem cell, the cellular mechanisms of tissue regeneration, the evolution of stem cells and regenerative capacity over time, the basis of induced pluripotency, and how these basic processes can inform new approaches to human health. Prerequisites: BIMM 100.

BICD 120. Molecular Basis of Plant Development (4)

Introduction to the biology of plants with a particular focus on the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling plant development. Topics include the role of plant hormones and stem cells in the formation of embryos, roots, flowers, and fruit. Prerequisites: BILD 1.

BICD 123. Plant Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology Laboratory (4)

Techniques in plant cell and tissue culture, plant transformation, genetic selection and screening of mutants, host pathogen interactions, gene regulation, organelle isolation, membrane transport. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student being dropped from the course roster. Recommended preparation: BICD 120. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

BICD 124. Plant Innate Immunity (4)

Plant immunity protects against pathogens and enables symbioses. This course explores the agents of plant disease, the genetics of inherited immunity, mechanisms of pathogenesis and defense, the coordination of plant immunity by plant hormones, and the regulation of symbioses. Prerequisites:  BICD 100.

BICD 130. Embryos, Genes, and Development (4)

Developmental biology of animals at the tissue, cellular, and molecular levels. Basic processes of embryogenesis in a variety of invertebrate and vertebrate organisms. Cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie cell fate determination and cell differentiation. More advanced topics such as pattern formation and sex determination are discussed. Open to upper-division students only. Recommended preparation: BICD 110 and BIMM 100. Prerequisites: upper-division standing BICD 100 and BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

BICD 136. AIDS Science and Society (4)

An introduction to all aspects of the AIDS epidemic. Topics will include the epidemiology, biology, and clinical aspects of HIV infection, HIV testing, education and approaches to therapy, and the social, political, and legal impacts of AIDS on the individual and society. In order to count for their major, biology majors must take the upper-division course, BICD 136. Prerequisites: BILD 1, BILD 2 recommended.

Formation and function of the mammalian immune system, molecular and cellular basis of the immune response, infectious diseases and autoimmunity. Prerequisites: BICD 100, BIMM 100. BIBC 100 recommended.

BICD 145. Laboratory in Molecular Medicine (4)

This course focuses upon a molecular and immunological approach to study problems in modern medical research. The emphasis will be on novel approaches in medicine, including lymphocyte biology, cancer biology, and gene transfer. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: BIMM 100.

BICD 156. Population Genetics (4)

How do natural selection, mutation, migration, and genetic drift drive evolution? Students will learn how these forces operate and how to describe them quantitatively with simple mathematical models. We will discuss how to apply this knowledge to understand the spread of drug resistance in pathogens, the evolution of beneficial as well as disease traits in our own species, the evolution of engineered organisms, and more. Renumbered from BIEB 156. Students may not receive credit for BICD 156 and BIEB 156. Prerequisites:BICD 100 and MATH 10A or MATH 20A.

BICD 194. Advanced Topics in Modern Biology: Cellular Development (2)

Course will vary in title and content. Students are expected to actively participate in course discussions, read, and analyze primary literature. Current descriptions and subtitles may be found on the Schedule of Classes and the Division of Biological Sciences website. Students may receive credit in 194 courses a total of four times as topics vary. Students may not receive credit for the same topic. Prerequisites: BICD 110.

Ecology, Behavior, and Evolution

An interactive introduction to estimation, hypothesis testing, and statistical reasoning. Emphasis on the conceptual and logical basis of statistical ideas. Focus on randomization rather than parametric techniques. Topics include describing data, sampling, bootstrapping, and significance. Mandatory one-hour weekly section. Students may not receive credit for both BIEB 100 and SIO 187. Prerequisites: BILD 3 and MATH 10A or 20A and MATH 10B or 20B. Students may not receive credit for both BIEB 100 and SIO 187.

BIEB 102. Introductory Ecology—Organisms and Habitat (4)

This course emphasizes principles shaping organisms, habitats, and ecosystems. Topics covered include population regulation, physiological ecology, competition, predation, and human exploitation. This will be an empirical look at general principles in ecology and conservation with emphasis on the unique organisms and habitats of California. Prerequisites: BILD 3 or equivalent.

BIEB 121. Ecology Laboratory (4)

A laboratory course to familiarize students with ecological problem solving and methods. Students will perform outdoor fieldwork and use a computer for data exploration and analysis. Fieldwork can be expected in this course. Associated travel may be required, and students are responsible for their own transportation. Students may need to provide and use their own laptop. Program or materials fees may apply. Prerequisites:BIEB 100 or MATH 11 or SIO 187 and BILD 3.

BIEB 123. Molecular Methods in Evolution and Ecology Lab (4)

Theory and practice of molecular biology techniques used in evolutionary and ecological research. Includes isolation and genotyping of DNA, PCR, and its applications. Phylogenetics, biodiversity, bioinformatics, and evolutionary and ecological analysis of molecular data. Material lab fees will apply. Students may not enroll in and receive credit for both BIMM 101 and BIEB 123. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student being dropped from the course roster. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 3.

This course begins with an introduction to plant population biology including whole-plant growth and physiology. We then focus on three classes of ecological interactions: plant-plant competition, plant-herbivore coevolution, and plant reproductive ecology including animal pollination and seed dispersal. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 128. Insect Diversity (4)

Course begins with a survey of insect diversity and phylogenetic relationships. Course then addresses issues such as population dynamics (including outbreaks), movement and migration, competition, predation, herbivory, parasitism, insect defense, mimicry complexes, and sociality. Course also includes discussions of pest management, evolution of insecticide resistance, insect-borne diseases, and how insects are responding to global change. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 130. Marine Conservation Biology (4)

Course integrates principles of ecology and marine biology to examine marine biodiversity loss from overexploitation, habitat loss, invasion, climate change, and pollution. We examine consequences of biodiversity loss to marine ecosystems, discuss management regimes, and address global and local ocean conservation problems. Course includes basic overviews of climate, marine biology, and oceanography that may be similar to topics covered in introductory courses at Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 131. Marine Invertebrate Ecology Lab (4)

A laboratory course introducing students to coastal marine ecology. Students will participate in outdoor fieldwork and work in the laboratory gathering and analyzing ecological data. We will focus on ecological communities from a variety of coastal habitats and use them to learn about basic ecological processes as well as issues related to sustainability and conservation of biodiversity. Fieldwork is expected in this course. Associated travel in the San Diego area is required and students are responsible for their own transportation. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: BILD 3 and BIEB 100 or MATH 11.

BIEB 134. Introduction to Biological Oceanography (4)

(Cross-listed with SIO 134.) Basics for understanding the ecology of marine communities. The approach is process-oriented, focusing on major functional groups of organisms, their food-web interactions and community response to environmental forcing, and contemporary issues in human and climate influences. Prerequisites: BILD 3. Students will not receive credit for both BIEB 134 and SIO 134.

BIEB 135. Aquatic Ecology Lab (4)

Course provides overview of physical, chemical, and biological processes that characterize inland waters (lakes and rivers), estuaries, and near-shore environments. Dominant biota of lakes, rivers, and streams, and how they are related to physical and chemical processes of the systems in which they reside will be covered. Methods will be introduced for assessing the chemical composition of water and detecting organisms that affect drinking water quality and coastal water quality management. Course requires field studies. Students should expect to fully participate in field trips transportation not provided by the university. Students must comply with all risk management policies/procedures. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 136GS. Tropical Field Ecology (4)

An introduction to the ecosystems of Costa Rica and the methods used to study them. Students will work in teams to collect data and make systematic natural history observations on plants, insects, birds, and other organisms in tropical rain forests, mangroves, and other tropical environments. Hypothesis formulation and testing, data analysis, and oral and written presentation of research will be emphasized. Students must apply and be accepted to the Global Seminar Program in order to enroll. Program or materials fees may apply. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 137GS. Sea Turtle Ecology and Conservation (4)

Course will introduce the biology of sea turtles (evolution, physiology, anatomy, behavior, life history, and population dynamics), conservation status, and ecological roles in coastal and marine ecosystems. Course reviews socio-ecological systems to incorporate human connections to sea turtles, the ocean, and governance. Emerging research and technology will be integrated with national and international law and policy to learn about management of endangered and migratory species. Students must apply and be accepted to the Global Seminar Program in order to enroll. Program or materials fees may apply. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

An introduction to the patterns of geographic distribution and natural history of plants and animals living in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. We will explore ecological and evolutionary processes responsible for generating and maintaining biological diversity and the nature of extinction both in past and present ecosystem. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 143. Computer Modeling in Evolution and Ecology (4)

An introduction to computer modeling in evolution and ecology. Students will use the computer language “R” to write code to analyze ecological and evolutionary processes. Topics include natural selection, genetic drift, community ecology, game theory, and chaos. Students will use their own laptop computers. Prerequisites: BIEB 100 or BIEB 150.

BIEB 146. Genome Diversity and Dynamics (4)

Modern sequencing technology has revolutionized our ability to detect how genomes vary in space among individuals, populations, and communities, and over time. This course will review methods and concepts in ecological and evolutionary genomics that help us understand these differences, including their relevance to health (human microbiome, cancer evolution), evolutionary history (ancestor reconstruction, human evolution), and the environment (effect of climate change). Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 3.

Evolutionary processes are discussed in their genetic, historical, and ecological contexts. Population genetics, agents of evolution, microevolution, speciation, macroevolution. Prerequisites: BILD 3 and BILD 1 or BIEB 143.

BIEB 152. Evolution of Infectious Diseases (4)

Treating infectious diseases is a uniquely difficult problem since pathogens often evolve, rendering today’s therapies useless tomorrow. This course will provide a review of concepts and methods in evolutionary medicine, with an emphasis on microbial genomics and molecular evolution. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 154. Evolutionary Inquiry (4)

Students will investigate selected in-depth topics in evolutionary biology through reading and writing. Students will read books and articles written for a general audience as well as primary literature. Example topics include the origins of novel features, the impact of human activity and environmental changes on evolutionary processes, the rate and intensity of natural selection, and how our own evolutionary history affects human health. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 3.

BIEB 166. Animal Behavior and Communication (4)

An integrated approach to animal behavior focusing on mechanisms of acoustic, visual, and olfactory communication. Course covers ethology and the genetics and neurobiology of behavior orientation and navigation and signal origins, properties, design, and evolution. Prerequisites: BILD 3 and Physics 1A or 2A.

BIEB 167. Animal Communication Lab (4)

Laboratory exercises will introduce students to quantitative methods of visual, auditory, and olfactory signal analysis and to lab and field studies of animal signaling. Prerequisites: BIEB 102 and BIEB 166. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student’s being dropped from the course roster. Materials fees will apply.

BIEB 174. Ecosystems and Global Change (4)

This course will teach the principles of ecosystem ecology in terrestrial and marine systems and will use examples from recent research to help students understand how global environmental changes are altering processes from leaf-level ecophysiology to global cycling of carbon, water, and nutrients. Fieldwork may be required. Prerequisites:BILD 3.

BIEB 176. Biology of Conservation and the Human Predicament (4)

Discussion of the human predicament, biodiversity crisis, and importance of biological conservation. Examines issues from biological perspectives emphasizing new approaches and new techniques for safeguarding the future of humans and other biosphere inhabitants. Prerequisites: BILD 3.

BIEB 182. Biology of Global Change (4)

This class will focus on ecological and evolutionary responses to three major anthropogenic stressors—climate change, resource exploitation, and urbanization. Students will learn about the eco-evolutionary changes that are currently happening due to anthropogenic impacts and also predictions about future changes due to such impacts. They will also learn about the economic and societal impacts of such changes and some of the strategies for conservation and sustainability in a changing world. Prerequisites: BIEB 102.

BIEB 194. Advanced Topics in Modern Biology: Ecology, Behavior, Evolution (2)

Course will vary in title and content. Students are expected to actively participate in course discussions, read, and analyze primary literature. Current descriptions and subtitles may be found on the Schedule of Classes and the Division of Biological Sciences website. Students may receive credit in 194 courses a total of four times as topics vary. Students may not receive credit for the same topic. Prerequisites: BIEB 102.

Molecular Biology, Microbiology

BIMM 100. Molecular Biology (4)

Molecular mechanisms and applications of the central dogma. Genome structure and function. Transcription and translation. Regulation of gene expression. Use of DNA technology in basic and applied biology. Note: Students will not receive credit for both BIMM 100 and CHEM 114C. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BIBC 103 or BILD 4 or BILD 70 or BIMM 101 and BENG 120 or CHEM 40A or CHEM 40AH and BENG 120 or CHEM 40B or CHEM 40BH.

BIMM 101. Recombinant DNA Techniques (4)

Theory and practice of recombinant DNA and molecular biology techniques. Includes construction and screening of DNA libraries, DNA sequencing, PCR and its applications, bioinformatics, and RNA analysis. Nonattendance may result in the student’s being dropped from the course roster. Note: Students may not enroll in or receive credit for both BIMM 101 and BIEB 123, or BIMM 101 and CHEM 109. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites:BILD 1.

BIMM 110. Molecular Basis of Human Disease (4)

An examination of the molecular basis of human diseases. Course emphasizes inherited human disorders, and some important diseases caused by viruses. Focus on the application of genetic, biochemical, and molecular biological principles to an understanding of the diseases. Prerequisites: BICD 100 and BIMM 100 and BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B, upper-division standing.

BIMM 112. Regulation of Eukaryotic Gene Expressions (4)

This course explores the mechanisms by which gene activity is regulated in eukaryotes, with an emphasis on transcriptional regulation and chromatin. Topics will include chromatin structure, histone modifications, chromatin dynamics, transcription factors, transcriptional elongation, enhancers, CpG methylation, heterochromatin, and epigenetics. Prerequisites: BIMM 100.

An introduction to eukaryotic virology, with emphasis on animal virus systems. Topics discussed include the molecular structure of viruses the multiplication strategies of the major virus families and viral latency, persistence, and oncology. Prerequisites: BIMM 100.

BIMM 116. Circadian Rhythms—Biological Clocks (4)

(Cross-listed with Psych 133 however, biology majors must take the course as BIMM 116.) This interdisciplinary course provides an overview of the fundamental properties of daily biological clocks of diverse species, from humans to microbes. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of internal time keeping in wide-ranging contexts including human performance, health, and industry. Prerequisites: BILD 1 or PSYC 2 or PSYC 106.

BIMM 116B. BioClock Studio (4)

The BioClock Studio is an innovative course in which a team of undergraduate students, drawn from diverse disciplines, will work collaboratively to develop their scientific and communicative skills to produce creative educational materials that will enhance understanding of circadian biology. Students are expected to attend the annual Circadian Biology Symposium held each winter, to the extent course schedules allow, to conduct interviews with prominent scientists. BIMM 116 is not a prerequisite to enroll in BIMM 116B. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: department approval required. Students will be required to formally apply to participate via an online application form and selected students will work in small teams with intensive mentoring to execute projects.

Basics of pharmacology such as drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination. Concepts in toxicology and pharmacognosy are used to survey the major drug categories. Prerequisites: BIPN 100 and BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

A discussion of the structure, growth, physiology, molecular genetics, genomics, and ecology of prokaryotic microorganisms, with emphasis on the genetic and metabolic diversity of bacteria and Archaea and their interactions with hosts and the environment. Prerequisites: BILD 3 and BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B and BIMM 100.

BIMM 121. Microbiology Laboratory (4)

Techniques in microbial physiology, microbial genomics, microbial evolution, and microbial ecology will be used to explore the role of microbes in industry, health, and the environment. Inquiry-based experiments will cover the fundamentals of both working with live microscopic organisms at the bench and bioinformatically analyzing their genomes at the computer. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student being dropped from the course roster. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: BILD 1.

BIMM 122. Microbial Genetics (4)

Course will consider the organization and function of prokaryotic genomes including content, DNA supercoiling, histone-like proteins, chromosomal dynamics (short-term and long-term), extrachromosomal elements, bacterial sex, transduction, transformation, mobile elements (transposon), epigenetic change, adaptive and directed mutation, transcription and its regulation, sensory transduction, bacterial differentiation, symbiosis, and pathogenesis. Prerequisites: BIMM 100.

BIMM 124. Medical Microbiology (4)

Encompasses the increasingly important areas of viral, bacterial, and parasitic diseases and understanding the complex interaction between humans and infectious agents. Covers human-pathogen interactions, mechanisms and molecular principles of infectious diseases, immune responses, countermeasures by pathogens and hosts, epidemiology, and cutting-edge approaches to therapy. Prerequisites: BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

BIMM 130. Microbial Physiology (4)

Prokaryotic cell biology will be discussed primarily from physiological and biochemical standpoints with a focus on conceptual understanding, integration, and mechanism. Topics will vary from year to year but will include the following themes: bioenergetics, cell polarity, cell adhesion, the molecular basis of morphogenesis and differentiation, prokaryotic motility and behavior, rotary and linear molecular machines, bacterial organelles, pheromones and messengers, circadian rhythms, biological warfare, and bioremediation. Prerequisites: BIBC 100 or BIBC 102 or CHEM 114A or CHEM 114B.

BIMM 134. Biology of Cancer (4)

This course explores the molecular and cellular pathways that become dysregulated during carcinogenesis. We will synthesize principles from genetics and molecular, cellular, and developmental biology to investigate how normal cells evolve into tumors. We will examine how tissues distinct from the tumor itself can participate in both facilitating and fighting tumor growth and explore historical and current approaches employed to inhibit tumorigenesis. Prerequisites: BILD 1, upper-division standing.

BIMM 140. Quantitative Principles in Biology (4)

Course considers problems in biology that were solved using quantitative biology approaches. Problems will range from the molecular to the population level. Students will learn about the scientific method and process, and how to apply it. Prerequisites: BILD 1.

BIMM 143. Bioinformatics Laboratory (4)

Bioinformatics is the analysis of big data in the biosciences. This course provides a hands-on introduction to the computer-based analysis of biomolecular and genomic data. Major topic areas include advances in sequencing technologies, genome resequencing and variation analysis, transcriptomics, structural bioinformatics, and personal genomics. This course will utilize free, web-based bioinformatics tools and no programming skills are required. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 4 or BIEB 123 or BIMM 101.

BIMM 149. Computation for Biologists (4)

Course will provide students with the computational tools and problem-solving skills that are increasingly important to the biosciences. Students learn to program in a modern general-purpose programming language and write their own programs to explore a variety of applications in biology including simulations, sequence analysis, phylogenetics, among others. Students will use their own laptop computers. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 2.

BIMM 162. 3-D Cryo-Electron Microscopy of Macromolecules and Cells (4)

The resolution revolution in cryo-electron microscopy has made this a key technology for the high-resolution determination of structures of macromolecular complexes, organelles, and cells. The basic principles of transmission electron microscopy, modern cryo-electron microscopy, image acquisition, and 3-D reconstruction will be discussed. Examples from the research literature using this state-of-the-art technology will also be discussed. May be coscheduled with BGGN 262/CHEM 265. Note: Students may not receive credit for both BIMM 162 and CHEM 165. Recommended preparation: PHYS 1C or 2C. Prerequisites:CHEM 114A or BIBC 100 upper-division standing.

BIMM 170. Genomics Research Initiative Laboratory II (4)

Students will characterize the genomic sequence of the organisms isolated in BILD 70 and use molecular and computational tools to resolve ambiguities and close gaps. They will then annotate the DNA sequence to identify protein and RNA coding regions. Renumbered from BIMM 171B. Students may not receive credit for BIMM 170 and BIMM 171B. Material lab fees will apply. Prerequisites: BILD 70.

BIMM 172. Genome Science (4)

Genomes are the immortal agents of evolution, passing from one individual to another in an unbroken line since the origin of life. This course explores the structure of genomes, the functions of its parts on a genome scale, the mechanisms of genome change, and the applications of genomic methods and knowledge. Prerequisites: BICD 100 and BIMM 100.

BIMM 174. Genomics, Big Data, and Human Health (4)

Imagine a world in which you can input your lifestyle and genomic information into an app to obtain personalized health recommendations. This world is not thirty years in the future but beginning to unfold now. Course reviews how genomic advances are revolutionizing health care. Includes recent developments in personalized medicine, disease screening, targeted immunotherapy, pharmacogenomics, and our emerging understanding of how microbiome and epigenetic factors impact health. Prerequisites:BILD 1 and BILD 4 or BIMM 101.

BIMM 181. Molecular Sequence Analysis (4)

This course covers the analysis of nucleic acid and protein sequences, with an emphasis on the application of algorithms to biological problems. Topics include sequence alignments, database searching, comparative genomics, and phylogenetic and clustering analyses. Pairwise alignment, multiple alignment, DNA sequencing, scoring functions, fast database search, comparative genomics, clustering, phylogenetic trees, gene finding/DNA statistics. This course open to bioinformatics majors only. Prerequisites: CSE 100 or MATH 176 and CSE 101 and BIMM 100 or CHEM 114C. Students may receive credit for one of the following: CSE 181, BIMM 181, or BENG 181.

BIMM 182. Biological Databases (4)

This course provides an introduction to the features of biological data, how that data is organized efficiently in databases, and how existing data resources can be utilized to solve a variety of biological problems. Object-oriented databases, data modeling and description, survey of current biological database with respect to above, implementation of database focused on a biological topic. This course open to bioinformatics majors only. Prerequisites: CSE 100 or MATH 176. Students may receive credit for one of the following: CSE 182, BENG 182, or BIMM 182.

BIMM 184. Computational Molecular Biology (4)

This advanced course covers the application of machine learning and modeling techniques to biological systems. Topics include gene structure, recognition of DNA and protein sequence patterns, classification, and protein structure prediction. Pattern discovery, hidden Markov models/support vector machines/neural network/profiles, protein structure prediction, functional characterization of proteins, functional genomics/proteomics, metabolic pathways/gene networks. Prerequisites: BIMM 181 or BENG 181 or CSE 181, BIMM 182 or BENG 182 or CSE 182 or CHEM 182.

BIMM 185. Bioinformatics Laboratory (Advanced) (4)

This course emphasizes the hands-on application of bioinformatics methods to biological problems. Students will gain experience in the application of existing software, as well as in combining approaches to answer specific biological questions. Sequence alignment, fast database search, profiles and motifs, comparative genomics, gene finding, phylogenetic trees, protein structure, functional characterization of proteins, expression analysis, computational proteomics. This course open to bioinformatics majors only. Prerequisites: two courses out of BIMM 181 or BENG 181 or CSE 181, BIMM 182 or BENG 182 or CSE 182, BENG 183, BIMM 184 or BENG 184 or CSE 184. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student’s being dropped from the course roster.

BIMM 194. Advanced Topics in Modern Biology: Molecular Biology (2)

Course will vary in title and content. Students are expected to actively participate in course discussions, read, and analyze primary literature. Current descriptions and subtitles may be found on the Schedule of Classes and the Division of Biological Sciences website. Students may receive credit in 194 courses a total of four times as topics vary. Students may not receive credit for the same topic. Prerequisites: BIMM 100.

Physiology and Neuroscience

BIPN 100. Human Physiology I (4)

Course introduces the concepts of physiological regulation, controlled and integrated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Course then examines the muscular, cardiovascular, and renal systems in detail and considers their control through the interaction of nervous activity and hormones. Note: Students may not receive credit for both BIPN 100 and BENG 140A. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 2.

BIPN 102. Human Physiology II (4)

Course completes a survey of organ systems begun in BIPN 100 by considering the respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. Consideration is given to interactions of these systems in weight and temperature regulation, exercise physiology, stress, and pregnancy and reproduction. Note: Students may not receive credit for both BIPN 102 and BENG 140B. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 105. Human Physiology Lab (6)

The focus of this course is to study human physiology. Experimental animals and human demonstrations are used to study membrane physiology, nerve and muscle function, hormone actions, cardiovascular physiology, and renal function. Students will also perform a research project and present their results in a symposium at the end of the quarter. Material lab fees will apply. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student being dropped from the course roster. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 106. Comparative Physiology (4)

This course examines the physiological adaptation of animals, invertebrates and vertebrates, to their particular environmental and behavioral niches. Structural, functional, and molecular adaptations of the basic organ systems are discussed. Prerequisites: BILD 2, CHEM 6A-B-C. BILD 3 is recommended.

BIPN 108. Biology and Medicine of Exercise (4)

Course addresses the human body’s response to exercise, addressing energy metabolism and the effects of both acute and chronic exercise on function in several important organ systems. Designing training regimes and the role of exercise in health will be considered. Prerequisites: BIPN 100 and BIBC 102 or CHEM 114B.

Normal function and diseases of the major hormone systems of the body including the hypothalamus/pituitary axis, the thyroid gland, reproduction and sexual development, metabolism and the pancreas, bone and calcium metabolism, and the adrenal glands. Students may not receive credit for both BIPN 120 and BICD 150. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 134. Human Reproduction (4)

Course focuses on physiological aspects of the human reproductive systems. Emphasis will be on cellular and systems physiology. Topics will include reproductive endocrinology, gametogenesis, fertilization and implantation, pregnancy and parturition, development of reproductive systems, and reproductive pathologies. Students may not receive credit for both BIPN 134 and BICD 134. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 140. Cellular Neurobiology (4)

This course covers the biophysics of the resting and active membranes of nerve cells. It also covers the mechanisms of sensory transduction and neuromodulation, as well as the molecular basis of nerve cell function. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 2.

BIPN 142. Systems Neurobiology (4)

Course will cover integrated networks of nerve cells, including simple circuits like those involved in spinal reflexes. Course will study how information and motor output is integrated and processed in the brain. Course will also discuss higher-level neural processing. Prerequisites: BIPN 100 or BIPN 140.

BIPN 144. Developmental Neurobiology (4)

Molecular basis of neuronal cell fate determination, axon pathfinding, synaptogenesis experience-based refinement of connections, and learning in the brain will be examined. Prerequisites: upper-division standing.

BIPN 145. Neurobiology Laboratory (4)

Students will gain experience with an array of methods used in modern neurobiology, including electrophysiology, optogenetics, and big data analysis. This laboratory course begins with the electric and chemical underpinnings of the nervous system and then dives into innovative techniques that we can use to study and change it. Attendance at the first lecture/lab is required. Nonattendance may result in the student being dropped from the course roster. Material lab fee will apply. Prerequisites: BILD 2 and BILD 4 and MATH 11.

BIPN 146. Computational Cellular Neurobiology (4)

Biophysical models of neurons and small neural circuits, including ion channels, synapses, dendrites, and neuromodulators. Analysis of neurons as nonlinear dynamical systems. This course and BIPN 147 are taught in alternate years. Prerequisites: BILD 2 and MATH 10A or MATH 20A and MATH 10B or MATH 20B and MATH 11.

BIPN 147. Computational Systems Neurobiology (4)

Models of neural coding and computation in the olfactory, visual, auditory, and somatosensory systems. Models of the motor system including central pattern generators, reinforcement learning, and motor cortex. Models of memory systems including working memory, long term memory, and memory consolidation. This course and BIPN 146 are taught in alternate years. Prerequisites: BILD 2 and MATH 10A or MATH 20A and MATH 10B or MATH 20B and MATH 11.

BIPN 148. Cellular Basis of Learning and Memory (4)

Course will explore cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie learning and memory. Topics will include synapse formation and synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter systems and their receptors, mechanisms of synaptic modification, and effect of experience on neuronal connectivity, and gene expression. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 150. Diseases of the Nervous System (4)

Course will be taught from a research perspective, highlighting the biological pathways impacted by different neurological diseases. Each disease covered will be used to illustrate a key molecular/cellular pathway involved in proper neurological function. Prerequisites: BICD 100 and BIBC 102 or CHEM 114B.

BIPN 152. The Healthy and Diseased Brain (4)

Covers the clinical symptoms, treatment, and molecular mechanisms of neurological, neurodevelopmental, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Emphasis on understanding methods and developing the ability to read and evaluate the scientific literature. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 154. Neurobiology of Stress and Mental Disorders (4)

This course will focus on the neurobiological mechanisms that mediate stress-induced behavioral change in animal models and in humans. Topics will range from the effects of stress hormones on brain function, to modern techniques for examining and treating stress-induced, long-lasting mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Prerequisites: BIPN 100.

BIPN 156. Glial Neurobiology (4)

Glia outnumber neurons in the nervous system and are increasingly recognized to play essential roles. This course addresses the different classes of glia, their functions, and their interactions with neurons that make them so important. Prerequisites: BENG 140A or BIPN 100.

The course will cover a broad anatomical and functional description of the human nervous system and explore evidence implicating key brain areas in specific functions. This course will discuss modern techniques and the use of model organisms for dissecting the anatomical organization of the brain. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 2.

BIPN 162. Neural Data Science (4)

Project-based course in which students will use computational notebooks to perform exploratory data analyses and to test hypotheses in large neuroscience data sets, including the differences between unique neuron types, leveraging text mining of the neuroscience literature, and human neuroimaging analyses. Prerequisites: MATH 11 and BIPN 100. Students will use their own laptop computers.

BIPN 189. Brain, Behavior, and Evolution (4)

This course provides a survey of natural behaviors, including birdsong, prey capture, localization, electroreception and echolocation, and the neural systems that control them, emphasizing broad fundamental relationships between brain and behavior across species. Note: Students may not receive credit for PSYC 189 and BIPN 189. Prerequisites: BILD 2 or PSYC 102 or PSYC 106.

BIPN 194. Advanced Topics in Modern Biology: Physiology and Neuroscience (2)

Course will vary in title and content. Students are expected to actively participate in course discussions, read, and analyze primary literature. Current descriptions and subtitles may be found on the Schedule of Classes and the Division of Biological Sciences website. Students may receive credit in 194 courses a total of four times as topics vary. Students may not receive credit for the same topic. Prerequisites: BIPN 100 or BIPN 140.

Special Courses

BISP 170. Bioscholars Seminar: From Bench to Bedside and Beyond (2)

Course will examine different aspects of a current topic in biology and will include several speakers. Each speaker will introduce the scientific foundation of the chosen theme (“bench”), describe practical applications of their subject (“bedside”), and consider social and ethical implications of the topic (“beyond”). The theme of the course will vary from year to year, and speakers will come from a variety of disciplines relevant to the theme. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites: BILD 1 and BILD 2.

BISP 191. Biology Transfers: Strategies for Success (1)

Course is designed to assist new transfers in making a smooth and informed transition from community college. Lectures focus on study skills, academic planning and using divisional and campus resources to help achieve academic, personal and professional goals. Exercises and practicums will develop the problem-solving skills needed to succeed in biology. Attention will be given to research possibilities. Intended for new transfers. Prerequisi tes: upper-division standing.

BISP 192. Senior Seminar in Biology (1)

The Senior Seminar Program is designed to allow senior undergraduates to meet with faculty members in a small group setting to explore an intellectual topic in biology (at the upper-division level). Topics will vary from quarter to quarter. Senior Seminars may be taken for credit up to four times, with a change in topic and permission of the department. Enrollment is limited to twenty students, with preference given to seniors. Prerequisites: upper-division standing department stamp and/or consent of instructor.

BISP 193. Biology Education Research (2 or 4)

Individual research on a problem in biology education by special arrangement with and under the direction of a faculty member. Projects are expected to involve novel research that examines issues in biology education such as the science of learning, evidence of effective teaching, and equity and inclusion in the classroom. P/PN grades only. May be taken for credit five times. Prerequisites:department approval required. Enrollment is via department approval only. Students must complete a special studies application as well as a research plan. Paperwork for a BISP 193 must be submitted to SIS by all published deadlines as listed on the biology web page.

BISP 194. Advanced Topics in Modern Biology (2)

Course will vary in title and content. Students are expected to actively participate in course discussions, read, and analyze primary literature. Current descriptions and subtitles may be found on the Schedule of Classes and the Division of Biological Sciences website. Students may receive credit in 194 courses a total of four times as topics vary. Students may not receive credit for the same topic. Prerequisites: BICD 100 upper-division standing.

BISP 195. Undergraduate Instructional Apprenticeship in Biological Sciences (4)

Under the supervision of an instructor, student apprentices will assist in the instruction of a biology course. The purpose of the apprenticeship is to learn the methodology of teaching biology, at the college level, through theory and actual practice in a regularly scheduled course. Limited to upper-division students with a 3.0 GPA or higher. Students must apply the quarter preceding the quarter in which BISP 195 will be completed. Applications are reviewed by instructors, and assignments are made based on divisional need. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit two times. Prerequisites: divisional approval required. (Note: Students must apply to the division as an undergraduate instructional apprentice and be reviewed by instructors via the online system). This course may be counted toward upper-division electives for a biology major.

BISP 196. Honors Thesis in Biological Sciences (4)

Course for student participants in the senior Honors thesis research program. Students complete individual research on a problem by special arrangement with, and under the direction of, a faculty member. Projects are expected to involve primary, experimental/analytical approaches that augment training in basic biology and that echo the curricular focus of the Division of Biological Sciences. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit three times. Research to be approved by Honors thesis faculty adviser via application. Note: Students must apply to the division via the online system. For complete details, applications, and deadlines, please consult the Division of Biological Sciences website. Application deadlines are strictly enforced. Prerequisites: students must have senior standing 3.6 overall and major GPA or above. Research must be approved by Honors thesis faculty adviser. Enrollment in this course is for those students participating in the Honors Program in Biological Sciences and is via department approval only.

BISP 197. Biology Internship Program (2 or 4)

Individual research on a problem by special arrangement with, and under the direction of, a UC San Diego faculty member and a selected researcher in industry or at a research institution. Projects are expected to involve primary, experimental/analytical approaches that augment training in basic biology and that echo the curricular focus of the Division of Biological Sciences. Application deadlines are strictly enforced. Consult the Division of Biological Sciences website for deadlines. Students must comply with all risk management policies/procedures. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit three times. Prerequisites:department approval required. Students must complete at least ninety units of credit and have a minimum GPA of 2.5. A completed and approved application/research plan/learning agreement is required for enrollment.

BISP 198. Directed Group Study (1 to 4)

Investigation of a topic in biological sciences through directed reading and discussion by a small group of students under the supervision of a faculty member. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit two times. Prerequisites:department approval required. Enrollment is via department approval only. Students must complete a special studies application. Paperwork for a BISP 198 must be submitted to SIS by Friday of the eighth week of the quarter preceding the quarter in which the 198 will be completed.

BISP 199. Individual Research for Undergraduates (2 or 4)

Individual research on a problem by special arrangement with, and under the direction of, a faculty member. Projects are expected to involve primary, experimental/analytical approaches that augment training in basic biology and that echo the curricular focus of the Division of Biological Sciences. P/NP grades only. May be taken for credit five times. Note: Students must apply to the division via the online system. For complete details, applications, and deadlines, please consult the Division of Biological Sciences website. Application deadlines are strictly enforced. Prerequisites:department approval required. Students must complete at least ninety units of credit and have a minimum GPA of 2.5.


Biology (BIOL)

Selected botanical topics of interest to the non-science major. Topics will include poisonous plants, medicinal plants, plant hallucinogens, tree-ring dating, botanical genetics, bonsai and commercial uses of major plant groups. Not for biology major credit. No credit will be given to those who have successfully completed BIOL 205.

BIOL 103 HUMAN BIOLOGY (3)

Basic principles of human body processes in normal and certain abnormal conditions for non-science majors. The emphasis will be on physiology with sufficient anatomy for its understanding. Not for biology major credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213), BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) , or BIOL 325.

BIOL 105 ENVIRONMENTAL BIOL (3)

Introduction of the relationships between humans and the environment. Fundamentals of ecology, hydrology, demography, energy, and nutrient cycling will be covered, as well as the human impact on the use of the Earth's land, water and air resources. An emphasis is placed on five key themes: Human Population Sustainability Global Perspective Urban World and Values and Knowledge.Core: Biological & Physical Sciences.

BIOL 117 HONORS BIOLOGY: THE SCIENCE OF LIFE (4)

A broad-based, investigative course designed to introduce important issues in the biological sciences to the non-scientist. Major topics include human genetics, evolution, ecology, and environmental issues. Three hours of lecture and two hours of laboratory per week. Not for students intending to pursue additional coursework in Biology nor for students from the College of Health Professions who require BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L & BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L and/or BIOL 315. Not for credit toward Biology major or minor. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 115, BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L, BIOL 201 or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L. Prerequisite: Admission to the Honors College. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 120 PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY [LECTURE] (3)

Biological principles common to plants and animals. Topics include scientific investigation, genetics, evolution, ecology and ethical issues in contemporary biology. Not for credit toward Biology major or minor. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 115, BIOL 201 or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L. Corequisite: BIOL 120L. Core: Biological and Physical Sciences or.

BIOL 120L PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY [LAB] (1)

Biological principles common to plants and animals. Topics include scientific investigation, genetics, evolution and ecology. Not for credit toward Biology major or minor. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 110, 115, 201 or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L. Corequisite: BIOL 120 (lecture). Successful completion of both satisfies. Core: Lab and Non-Lab Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 191 INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONS [LECTURE] (3)

Basic principles of biology including process of scientific investigation, cells, macromolecules, metabolism, DNA, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Intended for College of Health Professions majors who will take additional biology courses. Not for Biology major/minor credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 201, BIOL 200 or BIOL 200L. Core credit not given for both BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L and BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L. College of Health Professions major credit given to those who complete either BIOL 190 or BIOL 191 and BIOL 191L. Corequisite: BIOL 191L. Prerequisite: CHP major. Core: Lab & Non-Lab Sciences.

BIOL 191L INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONS [LAB] (1)

Basic principles of biology including process of scientific investigation, cells, macromolecules, metabolism, DNA, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Intended for College of Health Professions majors who will take additional biology courses. Not for Biology major/minor credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L or BIOL 201. Core credit not given for both BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L and BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L. College of Health Professions major credit given to those who complete either BIOL 190 or BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L. Corequisite: BIOL 191. Prerequisite: CHP major. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 192 HONORS INTRODUCTORY BIOLOGY FOR THE HEALTH PROFESSIONS (4)

Basic principles of biology including process of scientific investigation, cells, macromolecules, metabolism, DNA, genetics, evolution, and ecology. Intended for College of Health Professions majors who will take additional biology courses. Not for Biology major/minor credit. Not open to those who successfully completed BIOL 201 or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Honors College course. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 200 INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS [LECTURE] (3)

An introduction to biology, including biologically important molecules, cell and tissue structure, respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis, meiosis and genetics. Course designed for Biology and related science majors taking this course to fulfill Core credit generally not advised (see BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L as alternative). Core credit not given for both BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L and BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L. Corequisite: BIOL 200L. Prerequisite: CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L (may be taken concurrently) or one year high school chemistry major. Core: Lab and Non-Lab Sciences.

BIOL 200L INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR BIOLOGY AND GENETICS [LAB] (1)

An introduction to biology, including biologically important molecules, cell and tissue structure, respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis, meiosis and genetics. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Course designed for Biology and related science majors taking this course to fulfill Core credit generally not advised (see BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L as alternative). Core credit not given for both BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L and BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L. Corequisite: BIOL 200. Prerequisite: CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L (may be taken concurrently) or one year high school chemistry. Core: Lab and Non-Lab Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 202 INTRODUCTION TO ECOLOGY AND EVOLUTION (4)

Population dynamics, community patterns and processes, origin and diversity of species, natural selection, speciation, and population genetics emphasis on developing testable hypotheses and quantitative analysis of biological data. Three laboratory hours per week. Course designed for BIOL and related science majors taking this course to fulfill Core credit generally not advised (see BIOL 120 and BIOL 120L as alternative). Prerequisite: BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L [BIOL 201]. Core: Biological & Physical Sciences. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 203 HONORS BIOL I:CELL&GENETICS (4)

An introduction to biology, including biologically important molecules, cell and tissue structure, respiration, photosynthesis, mitosis, meiosis and genetics. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Major credit not given for BIOL 201 or BIOL 200/BIOL 200L. Honors College Course. Prerequisite: CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L [CHEM 110] (may be taken concurrently) or one year high school chemistry. Core: Lab and Non-Lab Sciences.

BIOL 204 EDUCATIONAL AND CAREER PLANNING FOR THE BIOLOGIST (1)

Exploration of undergraduate educational opportunities, graduate and professional education, career options, and career preparation in the Biological Sciences. Prerequisites: major status, 12 earned units, and BIOL 200.

BIOL 205 GENERAL BOTANY (4)

Plant structure, development, reproduction and diversity of life forms by interrelating hormones, physiological processes and environmental relationships with respect to the whole plant. Emphasis on flowering plants. Average of three laboratory or discussion hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 207 GENERAL ZOOLOGY (4)

Major animal phyla. A comparative approach to the structure, function, development and ecology of the animal kingdom. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 202. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 208 BIODIVERSITY (3)

Phylogenetics and the evolution of major groups of organisms: brief survey of representatives of the five kingdoms development and the evolution of form case studies on form and function the biodiversity crisis. Three lecture hours a week. Prerequisites: BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) and BIOL 202.

BIOL 210 MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY (3)

An interactive online study of the language of medicine including word parts, compound word construction, and medical terms used to describe the major body systems as used in medical records, documents, and discussions among medical professionals. Intended for students planning to apply to graduate school in some area of biomedicine, e.g. physician assistant school medical, dental, or veterinary school or a graduate program in a biomedical research field. At the completion of this course, students are expected to correctly use medical terms in both written and oral communication. Prerequisite: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201).

BIOL 215 ESSENTIALS OF MICROBIOLOGY (4)

Pathogenesis of bacteria and viruses, their interactions with the human body, and methods of treatment and prevention. Three hours of laboratory per week. Recommended for Health Science majors. Not for Biology major credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 191/BIOL 191L or BIOL 192/BIOL 192L or BIOL 200/BIOL 200L [BIOL 190 or BIOL 201] and CHEM 121/CHEM 121L or CHEM 131/CHEM 131L [CHEM 110] or CHEM 115 [CHEM 105]. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 220 ESSENTIALS OF HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Provides an overview of human anatomy and physiology through the study of the structure and function of the human body. Human organ systems: integumentary, skeletal, nervous, muscular, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems will be examined. This course is open only to students in the Health Education and Promotion major. This course is not equivalent to BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L or BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L and cannot replace one or both of these courses. Prerequisites: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L, or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L or equivalent major standing.

BIOL 221 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I [LECTURE] (3)

Cell biology, histology skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. To receive major Biology credit, BIOL 214 or BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L must also be completed. Students who have successfully completed BIOL 213 will not receive additional credit for BIOL 221/BIOL 221L. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including audits and withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 221L (lab). Prerequisite: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201).

BIOL 221L HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I [LAB] (1)

Cell biology, histology skeletal, muscular, and nervous systems. Average of three laboratory hours per week. To receive major Biology credit, BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L [BIOL 214] must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including audits and withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 221 (lecture). Prerequisites: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190), BIOL 192, or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201). Lab/class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 222 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II [LECTURE] (3)

Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems. Students who have successfully completed BIOL 214 will not receive additional credit for BIOL 222/BIOL 222L. Students who successfully completed BIOL 325 may not take this course without departmental approval. To receive Biology major credit, BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L [BIOL 213] must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including audits and withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 222L (lab). Prerequisite: BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L [BIOL 213].

BIOL 222L HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II [LAB] (1)

Cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, endocrine and reproductive systems. Average of three laboratory hours per week. To receive Biology major credit, BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L [BIOL 213] must also be completed. Course enrollment is limited to two attempts including audits and withdrawals. Exceptions to this limit may be requested by contacting the Course Coordinator. Corequisite: BIOL 222 (lecture). Prerequisite: BIOL 221 / BIOL 221L [BIOL 213]. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 301 FIELD AND NATURAL SCIENCE (3)

Physical and biological components of various environments and their interrelationships with each other and humans. Emphasis on field studies observation with the application of findings to classroom teaching and learning in the elementary and middle school classroom. Intended for Middle School education majors and environmental science and studies majors in the informal environmental education track only. Not for credit towards BIOL major or minor. Prerequisites: BIOL 117, or BIOL 120/BIOL 120L (BIOL 115), or BIOL 191/BIOL 191L (BIOL 190), or BIOL 192, or BIOL 200/BIOL 200L (BIOL 201), or BIOL 202, or BIOL 203 major status. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 303 LIFE SCIENCES (3)

Living organisms in the environment, emphasizing modes of scientific inquiry and the utilization of living organisms in the classroom. Not for credit toward the Biology major or minor. Prerequisites: BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L (BIOL 115), BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) majors in ELED, EESE, ECSE. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 304 NATURAL HISTORY INTERPRETATION AND PUBLIC ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION (3)

Overview of public education in the biological sciences at local organizations such as zoos, parks, and acquaria. Emphasis in placed on basic ecological concepts and how these concepts are presented to the general public, especially those of school age. Field experience at a local nature center outside of class time is required. Biology majors choosing the secondary school biology and general science teaching concentration or the organismal biology and ecology concentration may enroll for biology major credit. Prerequisites: Consent of instructor.

BIOL 305 ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (4)

Theory, preparation, and application of the electron microscope, including light microscopy. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: 12 credits of biology, PHYS 211, PHYS 212 recommended, and consent of instructor.

BIOL 306 HUMAN ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY (3)

Relationships and sustainability of human society and natural ecosystems. Relevant scientific, socioeconomic and ethical issues will be examined in such current events as climate change, energy policy and urban planning. Cannot be taken for Biology major credit. Prerequisites: BIOL 105, BIOL 115, BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190), BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201), BIOL 202 or CHEM 104. Core: Ethical Issues & Perspectives.

BIOL 307 INTR PALEONTOLGY (4)

Examination of major forms of life with the emphasis on appearances, diversification, and extinctions during the different geologic periods. Prerequisites: minimum 10 credits in Biology.

BIOL 309 GENETICS (4)

Problem-based genetics: Mendelian genetics, genetic linkage and mapping, nucleic acid structure, replication and function, protein synthesis and the genetic code, gene expression and regulation, mutation, repair, and recombination, recombinant DNA technology, and population genetics. Prerequisites: BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) BIOL 202 and CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L.

BIOL 310 CONSERVATION BIOLOGY (4)

Application of ecological theory to conservation of biological diversity. Exploration of past and present processes leading to and maintaining diversity and how such processes are impacted by human disturbance. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190), BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) or BIOL 202 and 10 units of biology, geography or physical science coursework.

BIOL 312 GENETICS LABORATORY (2)

Laboratory and computer-based applications of Mendelian, Molecular, and Population Genetics. Prerequisite: BIOL 309. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 313 BIOLOGY OF AGING (3)

Age-related changes in the human body at the cellular through organ system levels. Emphasis on changes in structure and function that alter the ability to maintain homeostasis or a high quality of life. Not for credit toward a Biology major or minor , or M.S. program. Prerequisite: BIOL 103 or BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) & BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214).

BIOL 315 MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY (4)

Pathogenesis of bacterial, viral, rickettsial and fungal diseases with emphasis on medically important bacteria and microbiological techniques. Recommended for students pursuing a career in medical sciences. Either this course or BIOL 318, but not both, may count toward Biology major or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) and CHEM 121/ CHEM 121L (CHEM 105) or CHEM 131/ CHEM 131L (CHEM 110).

BIOL 317 MICROTECHNIQUE (4)

Techniques used in preparation of plant and animal tissues for histological examination. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 120 /BIOL 120L, CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L [CHEM 111] (may be taken concurrently).

BIOL 318 MICROBIOLOGY (4)

Biology of microorganisms with emphasis on bacteria. Microbial morphology, physiology and genetics and the role of microorganisms in natural processes and disease. Laboratory includes methods of observing, isolating, and identifying bacteria. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Either this course or BIOL 315, but not both, may count toward Biology major or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) and BIOL 309 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 321 BIOLOGY OF WOMEN (3)

Anatomy and physiology, evolution of reproduction, health related issues, gestation, lactation and child care the role of women in the work force and sciences, including health issues contribution of women to global initiatives, including ecofeminism. Not for credit towards the Biology major or minor or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisite: one course fulfilling Core.

BIOL 322 BIOTECH & SOCIETY (3)

Use of biotechnology in medicine, agriculture, and ecology applications, ethics and future implications. Not for credit toward Biology major, minor, or M.S. degree in Biology. Prerequisite: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201).

BIOL 323 GENES, EVOLUTION, AND MORALITY (3)

Biological basis of morality and how those principles can be applied for a better understanding of historical events, current issues facing society, and future perspectives. Prerequisite: BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190) or BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201).

BIOL 325 ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Animal structure and function from molecular to organismic levels. Emphasizing comparative strategies and adaptations of various animal groups in their environments response of integrated systems to changes in the physical and chemical environment environmental physiology. Will not count toward Biology major credit for those who successfully completed BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) & BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214). Prerequisites: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 327 DANGEROUS DISEASES (3)

Microorganisms and their roles in diseases. Human impact on the environment relating to emerging disease biotechnological techniques ethical issues. Not for credit toward Biology major, minor, or MS in Biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 110, 112, 115, 190 or BIOL 201.

BIOL 334 HUMANS, SCIENCE AND THE CHESAPEAKE BAY (3)

Conflicts between human use of the Chesapeake Bay watershed, Bay water quality and effects on Bay natural resources emphasis on understanding the dynamics of this ecosystem and the role science plays in political decisions affecting the Bay. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and BIOL 202.

BIOL 347 MARINE BIOLOGY (3)

Major features of the marine environment emphasizing biological aspects and specific adaptations of marine organisms. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208.

BIOL 353 INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY (4)

Examination of the evolutionary history and phylogenetic relationships of the animals, including the origin of the animals and their place among eukaryotic life. This will include study of structure and function, general ecology and life history strategies of selected invertebrate animal groups. Laboratory emphasizes learning techniques for sampling various invertebrate taxa in natural settings. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 309. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 355 ANIMAL PARASITOLOGY (3)

Major groups of animal parasites and their vectors. Emphasis will be placed on pathogenesis of medically relevant organisms. Lecture discussions will incorporate an examination of relevant primary literature. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 360 HISTOLOGY (4)

Tissues of the vertebrate body. Prerequisite: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 367 ENDOCRINOLOGY (3)

Endocrine mechanisms regulating homeostasis and functional integrity of animals with emphasis on vertebrates. Prerequisites: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325, and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111).

BIOL 371 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR (4)

Introduction to modern study of behavior including the development and control of behavior as well as the evolution and adaptive value of behavior. Two recitation hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 BIOL 202 also strongly recommended.

BIOL 372 ANIMAL BEHAVIOR LAB (1)

Observational and experimental investigations of the development, control and adaptive value of animal behavior in both laboratory and field. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 371 (may be taken concurrently).

BIOL 381 WRITING IN THE BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES (3)

Practicum on writing in the scientific style appropriate for biology. Includes detailed analysis and critical written summation of primary research literature in biology. Not for major or minor credit or M.S. degree in Biology. Requires grade of C or better to fulfill Core or requirement. Prerequisites: ENGL 102 or ENGL 190 or equivalent, 60 completed units including a minimum of 16 units completed in biology, or permission of the instructor. Core: Advanced Writing Seminar.

BIOL 382 ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION AND SERVICE LEARNING IN THE TROPICS (3)

Designed for majors in Science or Education with an interest in Environmental Education course work will take place in Costa Rica emphasis on tropical forest ecology concepts applicable to PreK-12 environmental education and management of tropical natural resources. Cross-listed as ENVS 382. Prerequisites: minimum Junior status and consent of the instructor.

BIOL 389 CURRENT DEVELOPMENTS IN BIOLOGY (3)

Current directions of research in a major area of the biological sciences. Sufficient background will be studied for the appreciation of the significance of these developments. May not be repeated for major credit when offered under a different topic. Prerequisite: consent of department.

BIOL 402 GENERAL ECOLOGY (4)

Effects of the abiotic environment on distribution and abundance of organisms organization of biological communities ecosystems and global change application of ecological principles to natural resource management. Some daylong trips required. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 205, BIOL 207, or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 403 ADV GENETICS (3)

Emphasis on the molecular basis of gene action. Discussion of current work and methods related to the problem of gene structure, function, and mutation including the translation and regulation of genetic information. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 405 MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION AND CONSERVATION (4)

Examination of applications of modern molecular techniques in ecology, evolution, behavior, and conservation biology. Emphasis will be on how application of these techniques provides greater insight in these areas of study. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 406 LIMNOLOGY (4)

Ecology of streams and lakes: physical, chemical, and biological factors that affect communities of freshwater organisms laboratory and field experience in methods used to analyze aquatic systems. Prerequisites: BIOL 205, BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 408 CELL BIOLOGY (4)

The molecular and morphological organization of the cell in relationship to cellular activities with emphasis on eukaryotic cells. Average of three laboratory or discussion hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 309.

BIOL 409 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (4)

Molecular basis of genetic inheritance and gene expression. DNA and RNA structure, DNA replication, sources and mechanisms of mutation and repair. Genome structure and organization in viruses, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes. Average of two discussion hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 410 MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LABORATORY (3)

Modern molecular genetic research techniques. The theoretical and practical considerations of the organisms and enzymes used in molecular biology, gene cloning strategies, DNA sequencing and analysis, analysis of genome structure and gene expression, gene subcloning, and transgenic organisms. Prerequisite: BIOL 309. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 411 CANCER BIOLOGY (3)

Current concepts and knowledge of cancer, including cancer research and treatment. Will utilize lecture, review of journal articles to examine both the clinical and molecular aspects underlying cancer development with the aim of understanding how changes in the normal growth and division processes lead to tumorigenesis. Topics of discussion include cancer development and progression, oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, effects of chemicals and radiation, cell cycle control, cell signaling, apoptosis, angiogenesis, cell migration/metastasis, cancer prevention, and the immune response to cancer. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 412 CELL BIOLOGY LABORATORY (3)

Current laboratory techniques used for the study of cell structure and function. Theoretical and practical considerations for the growth and maintenance of eukaryotic cells and the analysis of gene expression, protein interactions, cell signaling and cell-cell contacts. Prerequisite: BIOL 309. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 413 EVOLUTION (3)

Concepts of biological evolution, the history of the development of these concepts, and current topics in revolutionary biology. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 205, BIOL 207 or BIOL 208.

BIOL 415 BIOTECHNOLOGY (3)

Application of molecular biology in the areas of agriculture, medicine, and ecology/environmental biology. Government regulations, ethical implications and patent issues will also be addressed. Prerequisite: BIOL 309.

BIOL 419 ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY (3)

Biology and ecology of microorganisms in natural and anthropogenic environments. Culture-based and molecular methods for detection, evaluation, and manipulation of microorganisms and their metabolism. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 (or permission of instructor), BIOL 309, CHEM 132, CHEM 132L BIOL 318 (or BIOL 215) recommended.

BIOL 420 MICROBIOLOGY OF INFECTIOUS DISEASE (3)

Cell and molecular biology of microorganisms that cause life-threatening disease. Topics include in-depth explorations of bacteria, protozoa, helminths, viruses, and fungi that infect humans, plants, and animals. Prerequisite: BIOL 309 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 421 IMMUNOLOGY (4)

Cells and organs of the immune system, antibody-antigen interactions, immunoglobulin gene organization, B-cell maturation and activation, Major Histocompatibility Complex, cytokines, complement, inflammation, hypersensitivity, vaccines, autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies with recitation section for problem solving and demonstrations. Prerequisites: BIOL 309 or BIOL 315 Recommended: BIOL 408 or BIOL 409.

BIOL 425 DISSECTION OF THE UPPER EXTREMITY (2)

Gross anatomical dissection of the human upper extremity including the muscles, nerves and blood vessels which supply the appendage. Special emphasis will be placed on development of techniques which assure careful and accurate dissection. Offered only in minimester. Prerequisites: BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) and consent of instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 427 NEUROMUSCULAR MECHANISMS OF THE UPPER BODY (2)

Gross anatomy of the human upper extremity and cranial nerves. Upper extremity emphasis includes muscle action, innervation, and major spinal cord pathways. Olfactory, optic, auditory, and vestibular functions of cranial nerves are stressed. One lecture and two laboratory periods per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 221/ BIOL 221L (BIOL 213) and consent of the instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 428 VIROLOGY (3)

Cell and molecular biology of viruses. General virology, including pathogenesis and mortality, interaction with the immune system, and some medically relevant viruses. Prerequisite: BIOL 315, BIOL 408, BIOL 409 or BIOL 410.

BIOL 431 HORTICULTURE (4)

Plant culture and application to developing desirable plantings on home grounds or in public places with examples of appropriate types of plants for specific situations. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 205 or BIOL 208.

BIOL 432 VASCULAR PLANT TAXONOMY (4)

A study of the history and principles of vascular plant systematics with laboratory time devoted to collection and identification of plants in the local flora. An average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 205 or BIOL 208 or consent of the instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 435 PLANT ECOLOGY (4)

Environmental factors and processes which control plant distribution, plant communities, and vegetational biomes of North America. An average of 3 laboratory hours per week with 2 required 3-day weekend field trips and a Saturday field trip emphasizing examples from Maryland and the Mid-Atlantic states. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 205 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 436 PLANT PHYSIOLOGY (3)

Life functions of plants as related to structure at all levels: cells, organs, and the complete organism. Consideration of the interaction of environmental and genetic factors on plant metabolism. Prerequisites: BIOL 205 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 131 / CHEM 131L (CHEM 110) CHEM 330 recommended.

BIOL 444 WILDLIFE MANAGEMENT (3)

Comprehensive introduction to the management, ecology, and behavior of wildlife species. Although regional species will often be used as examples, the course will emphasize principles that can be applied on a world-wide basis. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 or consent of the instructor BIOL 309 and 402 strongly recommended.

BIOL 446 TROPICAL ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION (3)

Evolution and ecology of tropical ecosystems. Mechanisms that maintain tropical diversity, species interactions, anthropogenic impacts, and conservation strategies. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 either BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 447 TROPICAL FIELD ECOLOGY (4)

Field course set in the tropical rainforest. Includes exploration of different tropical ecosystems and training in techniques to carry out independent field research projects. Prerequisite: BIOL 202 and BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of instructor.

BIOL 450 ECOLOGICAL BIOCHEMISTRY (3)

Examining diversity of natural products involved in biochemical interactions between plants, animals (including insects, humans, and other herbivores) and microbial flora. Effects that changes in the chemistry of these compounds have on function in ecological systems. Not open to students who have taken CHEM 450. Prerequisites: CHEM 330 or CHEM 331, and BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) or BIOL 202.

BIOL 452 WETLAND ECOLOGY (4)

Wetland ecology and wetland management, with special focus on wetlands of the Mid-Atlantic region. Emphasis is on biological, physical, chemical, and ecological aspects of wetlands. Course also deals with valuation, classification, delineation and management of wetlands for biotic resources and water management. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Two mandatory Saturday field trips. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 205 or BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 455 FISH BIOLOGY (4)

Evolutionary history, functional biology, ecology, and conservation of fishes. Weekend field trips required. Prerequisites: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111) BIOL 325 recommended. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 456 ORNITHOLOGY (4)

Evolutionary history, morphology, physiology, behavior and ecology of birds. One day-long weekend field trip and several early morning weekday field trips required. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 or consent of the instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 458 MAMMALOGY (4)

Evolution, comparative morphology, systematics, and distribution of mammals. Representative life histories are considered. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 461 ENTOMOLOGY (4)

Emphasis on entomology as an interdisciplinary science by including reviews of the major subdivisions within the discipline, including systematics, ecology, behavior, comparative biology and control. Laboratory emphasizes field work for collection of insects and identification and recognition of insect orders and common families. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 202 or consent of instructor. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 463 DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY (3)

Embryonic development of animals, including differentiation, morphogenesis, pattern formation, and organogenesis. Emphasis on cellular and molecular mechanisms governing these processes. Prerequisites: BIOL 309 and either BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325.

BIOL 465 MAMMAL PHYSIOLOGY (4)

An advanced physiology course that draws heavily upon knowledge gained in earlier courses to understand the aspects of organismal function unique to mammals. The course attempts to integrate all levels of organismal processes, ranging from molecular phenomena to whole animal function. The laboratories emphasize hands-on learning and experiences with live animals. Minimum of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisites: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325, and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111). CHEM 332 and CHEM 351 recommended. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 467 HERPETOLOGY (4)

Systematic survey of the modern reptiles and amphibians. Emphasis is placed on the evolution of morphological and behavioral traits which have enabled the reptiles and amphibians to successfully exploit their individual habitats. Laboratory includes systematic classification, student seminars and field work. Average of three laboratory hours per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 469 COMPARATIVE ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Functions, interactions, and regulation of organ systems in animals and their roles in sensory perception and integration, movement, oxygen utilization, energy procurement, temperature regulation, and water metabolism. Prerequisites: BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 and BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325 and CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111).

BIOL 470 ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY (4)

Physiological topics discussed at the molecular, cellular, organ, organ system, and whole organism levels. Emphasis on integrating knowledge gained in prerequisite physiology courses and recent discoveries. The recitation component will emphasize the scientific method, data interpretation, and quantitative skills. Topics may include: osmoregulation, gas exchange, general and specific metabolism, thermoregulation, locomotion and regulation via the neural and endocrine systems. Not open to those who have successfully completed BIOL 465 or BIOL 469. Prerequisites: BIOL 222/ BIOL 222L (BIOL 214) or BIOL 325, CHEM 132/ CHEM 132L (CHEM 111) [CHEM 332 and BIOL 207 or BIOL 208 recommended]. Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 471 ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY (2)

Hands-on investigation of physiological principles at the cellular, organ, organ system and whole organism levels. Course meets for 4 hours once per week. Prerequisite: BIOL 470 (may be taken concurrently). Lab/Class fee will be assessed.

BIOL 472 ORGANISMAL FORM AND FUNCTION LABORATORY (3)

Using locally collected invertebrate organisms this course will examine the details of animal movement (running, jumping, flying, feeding) with high-speed cameras. Students will develop their own research questions based upon species collected, and will be guided through data collection, analyses and presentation. Course will include some lectures on organismal form, function and performance, paper discussions, field trips to local sites, and will consist of in class time dedicated to data collection, analysis, and presentation. Prerequisites: BIOL 200 / BIOL 200L (or equivalent) and BIOL 202.

BIOL 473 ECOLOGICAL FIELD METHODS LABORATORY (3)

Focuses on inquiry-based ecological field research. Students develop critical thinking skills, ask research questions, and collaborate to carry out inquiry-based research. This process includes discovery, hypotheses forming, learning field techniques, data collection, statistical analyzes, and preparing a scientific poster. Prerequisite: BIOL 202.

BIOL 474 MOLECULAR TECHNIQUES IN ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND CONSERVATION (3)

Designed to introduce students to research in the field of conservation genetics. More specifically, students will participate in an ongoing research project using bioinformatic and/or laboratory and data analysis techniques. The goal is to generate data that will facilitate the management of a threatened species. Undergraduate researchers will engage in structured inquiry, in that they will investigate an instructor-presented question with a prescribed procedure but the project outcome is unknown. Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and BIOL 309.

BIOL 481 DIR READ:BIOL (1-3)

Independent reading in an area selected by the student in consultation with the instructor. May not be applied toward the Biology major or Biology minor, or M.S. degree in biology. May be repeated for a maximum of 3 credits. Prerequisite: a minimum of 10 credits in biology and prior written consent of instructor.

BIOL 483 WORKSHOP IN BIOLOGY (3)

Intensive study of a specific topic or technique in the biological sciences. Topic varies with instructor. May be repeated once provided a different topic is covered. Prerequisites: one biology course and consent of instructor.

BIOL 484 SEMINAR IN ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, CONSERVATION AND BEHAVIOR (1)

Discussion and analysis of current research in ecology, evolution, conservation biology, and animal behavior. May be repeated for a maximum of 2 units. Prerequisites: 12 credit hours in Biology, including BIOL 202, or consent of instructor.

BIOL 485 SEMINAR IN APPLIED BIOTECHNOLOGY (1)

Current research articles in cell biology and microbiology are reviewed. May be repeated for a maximum of 2 credits.Prerequisites: 12 hours in biology, including one of the following: BIOL 309, BIOL 315, BIOL 318, BIOL 408 or BIOL 409.

BIOL 486 BIOLOGY MAJORS SEMINAR (1)

Specific topic examined at the molecular, cellular, organismic and ecological levels of organization. Students will be required to present an oral and written report on an aspect of the topic. Prerequisites: BIOL 202, and (BIOL 205, BIOL 207 or BIOL 208) Junior/Senior standing.

BIOL 490 INDEPENDENT RESEARCH (1-3)

Active student participation in original investigation / research project with a faculty mentor. Not for Major or Minor credit. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 units. Prerequisite: Consent of the instructor. Graded S/U.

BIOL 491 ELECTIVE IN INDEPENDENT RESEARCH (3)

Active student participation in original investigation / research project with a faculty mentor. Project culminates in public oral or poster presentation or equivalent. Repeatable for up to 6 units, 3 of which may be used as the equivalent of a 3-unit Biology elective. Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

BIOL 493 INTERNSHIP IN BIOLOGY (3)

Practical application of biology in businesses, industries, and public and private agencies. Not for major or minor credit. May be repeated once for credit to a maximum of 6 units. Prerequisites: 2.75 GPA, junior or senior standing, major in Biology, and consent of the biology internship coordinator. A minimum of 11 units in Biology completed at Towson University is recommended. Special permit and co-op fee required. Graded S/U.

BIOL 494 TRAVEL STUDY (1-3)

A detailed investigation of field-oriented problems in biology away from the Towson University campus. Locations and topics to be selected by the department and instructors sponsoring the program. May be repeated for a maximum of 3 units. Prerequisites: BIOL 117, BIOL 120/ BIOL 120L, BIOL 191/ BIOL 191L (BIOL 190), BIOL 200/ BIOL 200L (BIOL 201) or equivalent and consent of instructor.


Donald R. Strong Jr.

Trophic ecology. Ecology and evolution of insect-plant interactions. Soil ecology, natural enemy, and salt-marsh ecology. Biological control of weeds.

Grad Group Affiliations

Specialties / Focus

  • Community Ecology
  • Evolutionary Ecology and Life History Strategies
  • Population Dynamics
  • Population Interactions

Courses

  • BIS 002B Introduction to Biology: Principles of Ecology and Evolution
  • EVE 101 Introduction to Ecology
  • EVE 120 Global Change Ecology

Field Sites

Honors and Awards

  • 2011. Distinguished Service Citation, Ecological Society of America
  • Fellow of the Ecological Society of America, 2012

Professional Societies

Degrees

  • 1966 BA Biology University of California, Santa Barbara
  • 1968 MS Biology University of California, Irvine
  • 1971 PhD Population Biology University of Oregon

Publications

Overton, C. T., Casazza, M. L., Takekawa, J. Y., Strong, D. R., and Holyoak, M. 2014. Tidal and seasonal effects on survival rates of the endangered California clapper rail: does invasive Spartina facilitate greater survival in a dynamic environment? Biological Invasions. Published online 21 January 2014.

Strong, D. R. and Frank, K. T. 2010. Human Involvement in Foodwebs. The Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 35:3.1–3.24. doi: 10.1146/annurev-environ-031809-133103.

Strong, D. R. and D. A Ayres. 2013. Ecological and Evolutionary Misadventures of Spartina. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. Vol. 44.


Biology

Biology, also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method.

Biology examines the structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution of living things.

It classifies and describes organisms, their functions, how species come into existence, and the interactions they have with each other and with the natural environment.

Four unifying principles form the foundation of modern biology: cell theory, evolution, genetics and homeostasis.

Biology as a separate science was developed in the nineteenth century, as scientists discovered that organisms shared fundamental characteristics.

Biology is now a standard subject of instruction at schools and universities around the world, and over a million papers are published annually in a wide array of biology and medicine journals.

Most biological sciences are specialized disciplines.

Traditionally, they are grouped by the type of organism being studied: botany, the study of plants zoology, the study of animals and microbiology, the study of microorganisms.

The fields within biology are further divided based on the scale at which organisms are studied and the methods used to study them: biochemistry examines the fundamental chemistry of life molecular biology studies the complex interactions of systems of biological molecules cellular biology examines the basic building block of all life, the cell physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of the tissues and organ systems of an organism and ecology examines how various organisms interrelate.

Applied fields of biology such as medicine and genetic research involve many specialized sub-disciplines.

A central organizing concept in biology is that life changes and develops through evolution and that all lifeforms known have a common origin.

Charles Darwin established evolution as a viable theory by articulating its driving force, natural selection (Alfred Russel Wallace is recognized as the co-discoverer of this concept).

Darwin theorized that species and breeds developed through the processes of natural selection as well as by artificial selection or selective breeding.

Genetic drift was embraced as an additional mechanism of evolutionary development in the modern synthesis of the theory.

Biological form and function is created from and is passed on to the next generation by genes, which are the primary units of inheritance.

Physiological adaption to an organism's environment cannot be coded into its genes and cannot be inherited by its offspring.

Remarkably, widely different organisms, including bacteria, plants, animals, and fungi, all share the same basic machinery that copies and transcribes DNA into proteins.

For example, bacteria with inserted human DNA will correctly yield the corresponding human protein.


A Dead End: Genus Paranthropus

The australopiths had a relatively slender build and teeth that were suited for soft food. In the past several years, fossils of hominids of a different body type have been found and dated to approximately 2.5 million years ago. These hominids, of the genus Paranthropus, were muscular, stood 1.3 to 1.4 meters tall, and had large grinding teeth. Their molars showed heavy wear, suggesting that they had a coarse and fibrous vegetarian diet as opposed to the partially carnivorous diet of the australopiths. Paranthropus includes Paranthropus robustus of South Africa, and Paranthropus aethiopicus and Paranthropus boisei of East Africa. The hominids in this genus went extinct more than one million years ago and are not thought to be ancestral to modern humans, but rather members of an evolutionary branch on the hominin tree that left no descendants.


BIOL154 HM - Biostatistics

Instructors: Donaldson-Matasci, Stoebel

Offered: Spring

Description: Statistical techniques for analyzing biological data, including parametric, nonparametric, and randomization methods. Statistical aspects of experimental design with an emphasis on analyzing data collected in BIOL054 HM.

Corequisites: BIOL052 HM

Concurrent requisites: BIOL054 HM


3. Other Topics in the Philosophy of Evolution

Some of the work in the philosophy of evolution deals with controversial issues. There is, of course, the debate over creationism. The vast majority of philosophers agree that creationism has significantly less evidence in its favor as compared to the abundant evidence in favor of evolution. They also agree that creationism ought not to be taught in a public school science classroom, but they sometimes disagree over the reasons why. For example, is it because it fails some criteria of science? If so, which criteria? Or is it because of the lack of evidence? Or is it because of its religious basis? Debates over sociobiology and evolutionary psychology&mdashareas that seek to explain human behavior and psychology as evolved characteristics&mdashhave likewise stirred up controversy over their scientific status. Proponents have also been accused of employing an excessive and uncritical adaptationism and resting on sexist or other problematic biases (on the latter, see the entry on feminist philosophy of biology).

Another nexus of topics in the philosophy of evolution involves heredity and heritability. Although it was not explicitly emphasized in the definitions of evolution given above, evolution is usually taken to be about heritable changes over time, i.e., characteristics that are able to be passed from one generation to the next. But there has been some discussion over which entities can properly be said to be heritable. Genes are uncontroversial, but are seen as too limited by some, who would consider phenomena such as learning and cultural transmission, epigenetic inheritance, and ecological inheritance to be heritable as well. The term &ldquoheritability&rdquo can likewise cause confusion, as it is a technical term within evolutionary theory, and understanding the term and its implications is not trivial. Classically, heredity has been thought of in terms of the genotype/phenotype distinction, with genotypes being seen as heritable and phenotypes being seen as not heritable. But to accept that distinction seems to accept a distinction between innate and acquired characteristics, and that distinction has been challenged, or at least shown to be more complicated than it would seem at first glance. Heredity also raises questions about biological information&mdashdo genotypes pass along information, and if so, in what sense?

Relatedly, for heredity to be a part of evolution, there must be replication of entities, or at least reproduction (with the former being a special case of the latter that involves copying). In order to allow for a more general theory of evolution, many authors will speak of replicators (or reproducers) and vehicles (or interactors) rather than the more limited and specific terms &ldquogenes&rdquo and &ldquoorganisms&rdquo. With these terms in hand, one can more easily begin to discuss (as many have) questions over units and levels of selection: does selection occur at the level of the gene, the organism, the group, the species, or all of the above? These units of selection (replicators/reproducers or vehicles/interactors) are often taken to be biological individuals (see the entry on the biological notion of individual) as a necessary condition for being units of selection at all.

Interestingly, another major area in which biological individuality has played a large role is in debates over the nature of species. That is, many philosophers of biology maintain that species are properly construed as individuals. Species, often referred to as &ldquounits of evolution&rdquo&mdashgroups of organisms that evolve in a unified way&mdashare nonetheless rarely seen as units of selection. In Elisabeth Lloyd&rsquos terminology (see the entry on units and levels of selection), this is presumably because species are rarely seen as replicators/reproducers or vehicles/interactors but are commonly seen as beneficiaries of evolution by natural selection. In addition to sorting out whether species are individuals and what sort of units of evolution (if any) they might be, there are many-decades&rsquo worth of papers trying to characterize the species concept, whether in terms of interbreeding, phylogeny, morphology, ecology, or some other set of characteristics. Here, as in many other areas of the philosophy of biology, there have also been arguments for a pluralistic approach.

Yet another area of discussion is evolutionary game theory&mdashan application of the mathematical theory of games to biological and other evolutionary contexts. It has provided a source of putative explanations for human and other behaviors evolutionary psychology, mentioned above, is one area that frequently makes use of a game theory approach. Among the more challenging behaviors that evolutionary game theory has sought to explain is altruism. With altruism, we again encounter questions about the level at which selection is operating (organisms or groups) because of questions about which entities selection is benefiting or harming.


Watch the video: Introduction to Evolution and Natural Selection (August 2022).