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Why can dogs hyperventilate without consequences like humans?

Why can dogs hyperventilate without consequences like humans?



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During the heat of summer, dogs usually breathes very fast, like 100 times per minute or more. If humans do so, we will experience an array of negative effects like dizziness, finger tingling or losing consciousness, by the results of blood alkalosis and reduced oxygen level. The question is, why don't our canine buddies seem to experience the same consequences?


Why Are Humans and Dogs So Good at Living Together?

Dogs have a special chemistry with humans that goes back many tens of thousands of years. Researchers investigated this special evolutionary relationship from a number of different angles. Their results are surprising.

The social unit
Domestic dogs are descended from wolves so recently that they remain wolves in all biological essentials, including their social behavior. Wolf packs have some intriguing parallels with human families:

  • They are territorial.
  • They hunt cooperatively.
  • Pack members are emotionally bonded and greet each other enthusiastically after they have been separated.
  • In a wolf pack, only the alpha male and female are sexually active even though other pack members are sexually mature.

The social adaptations of dogs and humans are similar enough that dogs can live perfectly happy lives surrounded by humans and vice versa. Dogs are pampered with the best of food and medical care, frequently sleeping in their owners' comfortable beds.

A family member
Why do people lavish so much care on a member of an alien species? A short answer is that on an emotional plane, families do not see the dog as alien. According to John Archer (1) of the University of Central Lancashire, who has conducted a detailed study of dog-human relations from an evolutionary perspective, about 40% of owners identify their dog as a family member reflecting social compatibility between our two species.

Dogs are extraordinarily attentive and have an uncanny ability to predict what their owners will do, whether getting the dog a meal or preparing to go on a walk. Experiments show that dogs and wolves can be astute readers of human body language using the direction of our gaze to locate hidden food (2) a problem that is beyond chimps.

Dogs also seem attuned to the emotional state of their masters and express contrition when the owner is annoyed, for example. Otherwise, the capacity to express affection, unconditionally, makes the dog a valued "family member."

Domesticating each other?
Dogs were the first domestic animal with whom we developed a close association. Mitochondrial DNA research suggests that most domestic dogs have been genetically separate from wolves for at least 100,000 years so that we have associated with dogs for as long as we have been around as a species (Homo sapiens). Indeed, some enthusiasts, including Colin Groves of the Australian National University, in Canberra, believe that our success as a species is partly due to help from dogs (3).

According to Groves: "The human-dog relationship amounts to a very long-lasting symbiosis. Dogs acted as human's alarm systems, trackers, and hunting aides, garbage disposal facilities, hot water bottles, and children's guardians and playmates. Humans provided dogs with food and security. The relationship was stable over 100,000 years or so and intensified in the Holocene into mutual domestication. Humans domesticated dogs and dogs domesticated humans."

Relying on dogs to hear the approach of danger and to sniff out the scent of prey animals, our ancestors experienced a decline in these sensory abilities compared with other primates. This conclusion is confirmed by shrinkage of brain regions devoted to these senses (the olfactory bulb and lateral geniculate body).

During the long period of our association, dogs' brains have shrunk by about 20 percent, typical for animals such as sheep and pigs who enjoy our protection. Domesticated animals undergo tissue loss in the cerebral hemispheres critical for learning and cognition. If we relied on dogs to do the hearing and smelling, they evidently relied on us to do some of their thinking. If Groves is correct that dogs have domesticated humans, then the human brain would also have gotten smaller. Surprisingly, human brains have actually shrunk, but by only a tenth, suggesting that dogs got more out of the deal than we did.

1. Archer, J. (1997). Why do people love their pets. Evolution and Human Behavior, 18, 237-259.
2. Udell, M. A. R., Dorey, N. R., & Wynne, C. D. L. (2008). Wolves outperform dogs in following human social cues. Animal Behaviour, 76, 1767-1773.
3. Groves, C. P. (1999). The advantages and disadvantages of being domesticated. Perspectives in Human Biology, 4, 1-12.


How Can You Tell Normal Dog Panting From Excessive Panting?

Use these tips to help determine whether your dog’s panting is normal or a sign that something is wrong. If you have any feeling that your dog is panting excessively or abnormally, call your vet.

Take Note of What Your Dog Is Doing

Panting should correlate with the outside temperature or activity. Healthy dogs usually don’t need to pant in the absence of exercise or excitement.

Could your dog be stressed, excited, or hot? If so, this is probably normal dog panting. If your dog is panting or breathing rapidly during rest or sleep, however, this is often abnormal panting.

Look for Other Symptoms

Is your dog lethargic or not eating well? Have they been coughing? Other symptoms are clues that can help distinguish normal panting from abnormal panting. These clues will help your vet diagnose the cause of your dog’s panting.

Pay Attention to Changes in Your Dog’s Panting Sounds

Changes in the sound of your dog's panting shouldn’t be ignored. Some dogs, particularly Labradors and Golden Retrievers, are predisposed to a condition called laryngeal paralysis. This is a dysfunction of the vocal cords that causes the airway to not open as wide as it should. The result is a characteristic abrasive sound when these dogs pant.

Similarly, dogs with short snouts like Pugs and English Bulldogs can make abnormal snorting sounds while panting due to a long soft palate or excessive tissue in the throat that causes obstruction of the airway.

Dogs with either of these conditions are more predisposed to heatstroke because they cannot efficiently pant to cool themselves. Keep them cool and watch for these sounds when they pant.

When in Doubt, Call Your Vet

How do you know when to call your vet? Short answer: Whenever you are concerned. Don’t wait and worry about your dog’s panting needlessly. Leave it to your veterinarian to determine if your dog is experiencing abnormal panting.


Could you make each other sick?

Human and dog mouths have “a large number and a wide variety of bacteria,” Fobian says. Fortunately, most of it doesn’t make us sick, but some can. Parasites like hookworm, roundworm, and giardia can be passed from dog to human through licking. Salmonella, too, can be passed from your dog to you, or vice versa.

Viruses tend to affect one species or the other you’re not going to give your dog a cold, and they won’t be giving you their cough.


Dog and Human Genomes Evolved Together

Evolution shaped genes in humans and dogs that correspond to diet, behavior, and disease, according to a new study.

The bond between dogs and humans is ancient and enduring. Dogs snuggle up to us at night, gambol by our side during daily walks, and flop adoringly at our feet when we crash on our couches. But new research shows that the connection runs deeper than you might think. It is embedded in our genes.

Researchers from the University of Chicago and several international institutions found that several groups of genes in humans and dogs—including those related to diet and digestion, neurological processes, and disease—have been evolving in parallel for thousands of years.

This parallel evolution was likely driven by the shared environments of humans and dogs, wrote the authors in a study published May 14 in the journal Nature Communications.

"As domestication is often associated with large increases in population density and crowded living conditions, these 'unfavorable' environments might be the selective pressure that drove the rewiring of both species," the authors surmise.

For example, living in crowded conditions with humans may have conferred an advantage on less aggressive dogs, leading to more submissive canines and eventually to the pets whose puppy-dog eyes gaze at us with unconditional affection. (Related: "Opinion: We Didn't Domesticate Dogs. They Domesticated Us.")

The study authors suggest that dogs were domesticated 32,000 years ago that's much earlier than current estimates, which place domestication at around 15,000 to 16,000 years ago. (Related: "Ancient Dog Skull Shows Early Pet Domestication.")

"Thirty-two thousand is a little bit old," said Bob Wayne, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. Although he does acknowledge that the timing of a split between wolves and dogs has varied widely—ranging between 6,000 and 120,000 years ago.

The study authors also proposed that dog domestication originated in Southeast Asia, rather than the Middle East, as others have suggested.

The scientists involved in the study sequenced the genomes of four gray wolves from Russia and China, three Chinese street dogs, and three domesticated breeds—including a German shepherd, a Belgian malinois, and a Tibetan mastiff.

They were then able to figure out which genes were associated with domestication and how far back that shift may have occurred. The team also looked at the dog genes selected for during domestication and compared them with human genes.

"The history of dog domestication is often depicted as a two-stage process," wrote Weiwei Zhai, a genetics researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing and a study co-author, in an email. "The first stage is from wolves to dogs. The second stage is from dogs to breeds." (Read "How to Build a Dog" in National Geographic magazine.)

Southeastern Asia street dogs, including the Chinese street dogs in the study, may be an evolutionary bridge between wolves and purebred dogs due to their greater genetic diversity when compared with other street dogs from around the world, Zhai explained. This would make the Chinese street dogs a kind of "missing link" among canines.

When Zhai and colleagues took their canine sequences and compared them with the human genome, the team found that sequences for things such as the transport of neurotransmitters like serotonin, cholesterol processing, and cancer have been selected for in both humans and dogs.

Though selection in the same gene in two different species, known as convergent evolution, is rare in nature, said Zhai, their results weren't too surprising. After all, humans and dogs have shared the same living environment for years.

In addition to sharing genes that deal with diet and behavior, dogs and humans also share diseases, including obesity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and some cancers including breast cancer, wrote Ya-ping Zhang, a professor at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Kunming (map), in an email.

This might be due to the fact that genes often have multiple effects, explained Zhai. "Some of the effects will be beneficial, while others can be deleterious. When the selective advantage outweighs the deleterious cost, the gene can still be selected [for]."

The cancer-related genes the research team found evolving together in both dogs and humans could be the result of processes like this, said Zhai.

"This is nice that [their study is] based on complete genome data," said UCLA's Wayne, who provided reference data the study authors compared with their genetic sequences. Other studies have used only snippets, such as mitochondrial DNA.

But he cautioned that comparing human and canine genomes can be tricky, adding that the evaluation of canine sequences from other places in addition to China and Russia would have helped in the dating of domestication and in establishing its location.

Furthermore, Wayne said, without further comparisons between humans and other domestic animals like goats or horses, it's hard to know whether the parallel evolution in the genomes of humans and dogs is unique or not.

Even so, he added, the study adds another chapter to the story of dog domestication—a story far from over.


Examples of Human Food Dogs Can Eat

Now that you know all about the dog digestive system, canine-specific digestive issues, and how their diet has evolved, let’s take a look at some of the safe foods that your pup can eat. These foods can be incorporated in your dog's daily meals or given as snacks.

1. Watermelon

On a hot summer's day, feel free to throw a big slice of watermelon to Fido. Not only is it safe for him to eat, but watermelon also provides incredible hydration. For the owners out there that don’t feel as though their dog drinks enough, consider watermelon!

2. Berries

Another fruity favorite for the dog digestive system. One of the best pieces of hydration advice that I’ve heard of for dogs is to throw a few blueberries or raspberries into his water bowl. This will encourage him to fish around and drink more water on his quest to grab a tasty berry.

3. Oatmeal

Oats can be a helpful source of fiber and can help dogs with digestive issues. An excellent way to feed your dogs oats is in a smoothie bowl. Make up a berry smoothie and top with some oats and honey for a delicious, healthful treat.

4. Peanut Butter

As much as this is a must-have in our human diets, our dogs seem to share the taste for it. Peanuts are a well-known allergen in human diets, but a peanut allergy in canines is incredibly rare.

As with anything, test a small amount of peanut butter before going the whole hog. If your dog is picky about food, mixing a tablespoon of peanut butter into his meal can encourage him to finish his dinner.

5. Cheese

Of course, we couldn’t make a list without including a dog’s favorite human food – cheese. If your pup requires daily medication, hiding a tablet into a cube of cheese can be the easiest way to make sure he eats it.

The fat requirement for a dog is far less than that of a human, so be cautious about overfeeding cheese. Too much cheese in a dog's digestive system could cause constipation or increase Fido’s risk of developing medical conditions.

6. Eggs

These are best served scrambled, as raw eggs come with the risk of salmonella. Boiled eggs can be given but should be chopped up to remove choking risk. This is a particularly palatable option for dogs who are feeling under the weather.

7. Cooked White Rice

We’ve all heard of feeding dogs rice and veggies when he’s got an upset tummy, and the reason that many do this is that cooked rice is very gentle on the dog digestive system. No need to make up an extra batch just for your dog if you’re cooking some anyway, but be sure not to salt the rice if you’re planning on sharing with your pet!


How Dogs Drive Emotional Well-being

"A dog is the only thing on earth that loves you more than you love yourself." –Josh Billings

It is said that dogs are a (wo)man’s best friend. The logic behind this sentiment is obvious to most dog owners: They are loyal, devoted, loving, dependable, and typically cuddly. Who wouldn’t want a best friend with those qualities?

But according to research, dogs can be much more than simply a trusting buddy. The evidence proving the physical benefits of living with a canine companion has been well documented and varies from improved cardiovascular health and increased physical activity to lower cholesterol and decreased blood pressure.

There’s no question that my dogs get me out to do more walking and hiking than I would otherwise, even on the days when I’d prefer to lounge in my pajamas or sip my coffee and read. But physical exercise aside, dogs add much more to our daily lives, and science is catching on.

Adding to the plus side of the canine cause, emerging research is showing an array of ways in which dogs can provide support and a sense of calm for our daily emotional and psychological stresses, as well as traumatic events.

Here are a few of the findings concerning dogs and the benefits they can offer.

Dogs teach us mindfulness.

When your dog lies on the floor, bathing in the sun as it streams through the window, it is doing just that — experiencing the sense of warmth that spans across its body. “Perhaps one of the greatest psychological benefits of interacting with a dog is the opportunity it provides to be more mindful — to purposely focus your attention on the present moment,” reads an article from Harvard Medical School.

Dogs can inspire mindfulness during an ordinary walk. In a New Yorker article, author Frédéric Gros says, “You’re doing nothing when you walk, nothing but walking. But having nothing to do but walk makes it possible to recover the pure sensation of being, to rediscover the simple joy of existing, the joy that permeates the whole of childhood.”

Spending time with dogs, who have a natural capacity to open up to each moment as it unfolds — the sights, sounds, and smells — can motivate us to follow their example. Try taking a cue from your dog, and as you go about your day, take a moment to bring your attention to the sensations in your body. Take a few deep breaths, and notice how that makes you feel. Engage your senses, and savor what is happening around you. Then thank your dog for setting a good example.

And if you’re looking to meditate with your dog, check out Petitations, a website started by Elisabeth Paige, a UC-Davis researcher. Paige found that petting her dogs became her anchor to the present moment, and she has since written a book on how to “petitate” and offers guided meditations on her website.

Dogs relieve stress.

Life is filled with stressors and to-do lists that never seem to end. Recent studies show the psychological benefits of having a furry friend come to work, and a growing number of companies — Atlantic Health System, Mars Inc., Amazon, and Etsy, to name a few — offer a dog-friendly environment in an effort to reduce stress among employees.

College students are yet another stressed-out population. When the University of British Columbia brought in therapy dogs, providing 246 students with a chance to pet and cuddle during drop-in sessions, the results, published in Stress and Health, were impressive: Students who were surveyed both before and after engaging with the dogs reported a significant decrease in their stress level, along with increased happiness and a higher energy level following the session.

“The results were remarkable,” said Stanley Coren, study co-author and professor emeritus of psychology at UBC. “We found that, even 10 hours later, students still reported slightly less negative emotion, feeling more supported, and feeling less stressed, compared to students who did not take part in the therapy dog session.”

Dogs lead us to nature.

As dog owners, we are outside walking our dogs every day hopefully, a few times a day. But having a dog also motivates us to get into green spaces — a walk in the park, along a beach, or into the woods. And thanks to these leash pullers (mine, anyway), the lure into nature is bringing us significant benefits.

In recent years, research has shown that nature can provide positive impacts by offering stress relief, boosting your mood, increasing social interaction, encouraging physical activity, soothing pain, and enhancing your creativity. Even in an urban environment, you’ll reap the benefits. Studies suggest that being in any green space — whether it’s a small park or an endless coastline — will boost your mental health.

Dogs offer empathy.

When Benjamin Stepp, an Iraq War veteran, experiences pain and starts to feel agitated, Arleigh, his service dog, will try to distract him by first putting her paw on his foot. If Mr. Stepp doesn’t respond, Arleigh, who came from K9s For Warriors, will put her head on his lap. And if that doesn’t work, she will stand up and place her paws on his shoulders.

This ability, known as emotional contagion — the spread of feelings between animals and people — is gaining traction in the field of science. Recent findings from the University of Vienna suggest that dogs can sense emotions and even differentiate between good and bad ones.

Stepp, who suffered a traumatic brain injury and endures severe pain in his back and legs, says anger kept him alive when he was serving overseas, but that is no longer necessary. Once Arleigh senses her owner's anger and anxiety building, she gives him a signal to start using mindful breathing and other tools to calm down until she senses his negative emotions have diminished.

“Since dogs share their natural environment with us, humans, our emotional vocalizations are likely to be of relevance to them,” says Annika Huber, author of the University of Vienna study. “It indicates our close relationship.”

Dogs bring comfort.

When my father was dying of cancer, it was my dog, Ginger, who brought me the most comfort. Every morning before visiting my father at the hospital, she and I walked to our secret place — a hidden, rocky perch in a nearby park from where we could look out over the water — and just sat. I stared in thought, sometimes crying, other times frustrated, and Ginger got close enough to my body so I knew she was there to support me. She waited for my cues, watching my every move.

The comfort that dogs are able to bring touches people in a variety of circumstances — sometimes traumatic. An article in The Los Angeles Times reported how young sexual abuse victims are finding comfort in therapy dogs, which are provided by the Orange County district attorney’s office. The program, a partnership with a group called PANDA (PAWS [Pets Are Wonderful Support] Assist the Needs of the District Attorney), aims to help comfort child victims of sexual abuse when meeting with prosecutors on their case.

Cynthia Woxen has seen the smiling faces on these children when her therapy dog Teagen, a former racing greyhound she adopted five years ago from a rescue, enters the room. "There have been a couple times during our PANDA visits where she [Teagen] refuses to leave the side of a child who needs her," Woxen said.

Dogs provide a sense of purpose.

In Being Mortal, a book about the realities of aging and medicine by surgeon Atul Gawande, the author uncovers through his research and experiences that people are at their happiest when they feel their lives have purpose. In one chapter, Gawande writes about a bleak nursing home that found joy and renewal when a dedicated physician brought in plants, animals, and children. The discovery here was that many of the depressed patients simply needed to make sure a plant was fed water, or a little bird was eating.

The need to care for another being offers a reason — a sense of purpose — to get up and do what needs to be done, especially for the elderly. For many people, young and old, dogs can drive that intention — we feed them, walk them, care for them, and get little but affection in return.

Dogs promote socialization.

When out for a walk with your dog, and given the opportunity, how many times does Snoopy sniff another dog or tolerate being sniffed? These sniff sessions are prime opportunities for striking up a conversation with the human on the other end of the leash.

Having social support brings us a sense of belonging and is essential to our well-being. Walking your dog is not only a great way to explore your community, but also a chance to chat up your neighbors. In a study of more than 800 people over 50, those who walked a dog at least four times per week were more likely to report feeling a strong sense of community, compared to people who didn’t own a dog, lending itself to healthy aging.

In a study of people in wheelchairs, those who had a dog received more smiles and had more conversations with people passing by than those without a dog. This is significant because able-bodied people often exhibit uncomfortable behaviors — such as gaze avoidance, greater personal distance, and briefer social interactions — making dogs a factor toward encouraging friendlier exchanges. These results also suggest that service dogs have a greater role than just work tasks they enhance opportunities for social connections, which is an added, meaningful benefit.

So, next time you’re out walking and not feeling hurried, enjoy some banter with another dog owner. Even a smile — from one dog lover to another — can go a long way.

Dogs decrease loneliness and depression.

We may be ever more connected on social media, but in these times of physical disconnection, loneliness is becoming a health epidemic. In fact, there is enough concern in the United Kingdom that Prime Minister Theresa May has appointed a Minister of Loneliness to tackle the issue. But research shows that among the benefits of dog ownership is a sense of companionship and social support that can lead to less loneliness.

According to Gary Christenson, chief medical officer at Boynton Health Service at the University of Minnesota, it comes down to a pet’s loyalty and devotion: "There is a bond and companionship that makes a big difference in mental health."

Pet owners have a lower rate of depression, and studies also show that they suffer fewer symptoms of depression when there is a pet in the home. "The calming presence and the social bond that pets bring can be very powerful," says Christenson. "Animals give something to focus on instead of the negative thoughts a depressed person is prone to have. When a pet pays attention to you, they're giving you unconditional love and acceptance."

Facebook/LinkedIn image: Helen Sushitskaya/Shutterstock


Why Animal Experimentation Doesn't Work. Reason 3: Animals Aren't Little Humans

Your child, my father, and all of our loved ones who may be suffering from illnesses are not rats or dogs or monkeys. So why do animal experimenters keep treating them as though they are?

Suppose you are an experimenter and are determining if methylprednisolone, a steroid, will help humans with spinal cord injury. After crushing the spinal cords of many different animals, you test the drug on them. My colleagues and I looked at the published studies (62 in total) and here are the results broken down by species [1]:

  • In Cats: the drug was mostly effective
  • Dogs: mostly effective
  • Rats: mostly ineffective
  • Mice: always ineffective
  • Monkeys: effective (1 experiment)
  • Sheep: ineffective (1 experiment)
  • Rabbits: results were split down the middle

Based on these results, can you determine if methylprednisolone will help humans with spinal cord injury?

This leads to the third major reason in my series why animal experimentation is unreliable for understanding human health and disease:

IN REGARDS TO PHYSIOLOGY, ANIMALS AREN'T LITTLE HUMANS

Noticing how methylprednisolone results differed among species, we then examined the reasons behind this [2]. We found that living conditions, stress, and the artificiality of the models affect test results.

Furthermore, test results vary by species and even by strains within a species, because of inter-species and inter-strain differences in neurophysiology and the functions of the relevant genes. For example, the cellular and tissue pathology of spinal cord injury, injury repair mechanisms, and recovery from injury vary greatly between different strains of rats and mice.

Just as you are not a larger version of a mouse or a monkey, they are not smaller versions of you. This photo may give you some ideas why.

Although we share most of our genes with other mammals, there are critical differences in how our genes actually function. As an analogy, as pianos have the same keys, humans and animals share the same genes. What makes us different? The way the genes or keys are expressed. Play the keys in a certain order and you hear Chopin, a different order and you hear Ray Charles, yet a different order and it's Jerry Lee Lewis. In other words, same keys or genes, but very different outcomes.

To circumvent these differences, experimenters alter animals' genes in attempts to make them more "human-like." Does this work?

How Human Are "Humanized" Mice?

Mice are used extensively because of their supposed genetic similarity with humans and because their entire genome has been mapped. Their genes have been manipulated to make them more "human." However, as we saw in the prior article, if we put a human gene in a mouse, that gene is likely going to function quite differently from how it functions in us. To continue the piano analogy, the key that was playing Chopin is now playing Ray Charles.

Even among mice, corresponding genes can behave very differently. The disruption of a gene in one strain of mice is lethal, whereas disruption of that gene in another strain has no effect [3]. Six strains of mice, which share the same genetic mutation that causes Fragile X syndrome, show radically different behaviors. In other words, one strain of mice isn't predictive of another strain of mice.

These are just a few examples. The more we look, the more we discover that "humanized" animal models aren't living up to their promise. That's because human genes are still in non-human animals.

Are Non-Human Primates Human Enough?

Instead of mice, many experimenters use non-human primates (NHPs), hoping they will mimic human results. Here again, however, the species barrier is real. There is a reason why a monkey looks like a monkey and your wife or husband looks like someone you wanted to marry. Our different outward appearances are a reflection of differences in our internal biology.

Chimpanzees share 98 percent percent of our genes, yet there are many differences between chimpanzees and humans in DNA sequence and how our genes function [4]. These genetic differences ultimately cause differences in physiology.

HIV/AIDS vaccine research using NHPs is one of the most notable failures in animal experimentation. A lot of time, energy and money have been spent studying HIV in chimpanzees and other NHPs. Yet all of about 90 animal-tested HIV vaccines failed in humans [5].

Remember when hormone replacement therapy (HRT) was hailed for preventing heart disease and strokes? The campaign to prescribe HRT in millions of women was based in large part on experiments on non-human primates. HRT is now known to increase the risk of these diseases in women [6].

Experiments using monkeys are not any more predictive of human responses than those using any other animal. This is the essential problem with using other species to inform human health.


No two humans are alike in their physiology. Even identical twins differ in their susceptibility to diseases and their responses to medications. If we can't reliably extrapolate from one identical twin to another, how can we expect to extrapolate results from different species to humans?

Let's return to methylprednisolone. Do we pool results from all tested species? If we do, our answer on the usefulness of the drug may depend on whether most of the experiments involved rats and mice, which showed the drug to be largely ineffective, or cats and dogs, which showed the opposite.

If instead we put our faith in results from only species we believe to be most predictive of human responses, how do we know which species to choose? Monkeys or rats? But it doesn't stop there -- do we trust the results from a certain strain of rat and not another strain?

So what's the final answer? We don't know. Besides being incredibly cruel and wasteful, the animal experiments are completely useless in determining if methylprednisolone is effective in humans. Rather frustrating, isn't it? That's the point.

Stay tuned for my next article: The top 3 ways that animal experimentation hurts humans. Share your thoughts. What do you think they are?

Want to know more? Check out my website and join me on Facebook.


What is Cerenia & what can it be used for?

Cerenia is the first medication FDA-approved to help dogs with symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
What’s more is that this medication has the ability to prevent the symptoms from arising in the first place.

Cerenia can be prescribed for a variety of upset stomach instances, with the most popular being motion sickness. Many dogs, in fact, one in five dogs, suffer from motion sickness when traveling in the car. Because of this, dog owners tend to leave their furry friends at home instead of bringing them along for the ride. If your vet were to prescribe Cerenia, there would be no motion sickness problems.

You’ll have to keep an eye on your dog to determine whether he or she is actually nauseous and ready to vomit. Many dogs do a good job of hiding their stomach pain, so you’ll have to monitor his or her reactions. Some of the tell-tale signs that your dog has motion sickness are excessive vomiting, constant drooling, dry heaving, restlessness, and uneasiness.


The Bottom Line

Breathing issues in dogs can happen due to many underlying health problems. It is necessary to determine first what the cause is and to treat it. Some possible causes include trauma, infections, heart failure, and tumors. A breed's genetic predisposition can also cause breathing problems.

Take your dog to the vet immediately if you notice any of the above symptoms, or the dog has unusually abnormal panting, and you think that they have an issue with breathing. Excessive panting and rapid or labored breathing are the first signs. Follow your vet’s instructions to treat the animal's respiratory issues and underlying causes at home.


Watch the video: Γιατί δαγκώνουν οι σκύλοι; Ο εκπαιδευτής Ηλ. Κανέλλος εξηγεί στο One Channel (August 2022).