Joint Implementation (CI)

Joint Implementation (CI)

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Encourage the implementation of projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions in Annex I countries with transition economies.

The rules regarding project methodologies, project types and steps are similar to those in the "Clean Development Mechanism".

What is my contribution to the greenhouse effect?

One ton of CO2is issued when you:

  • Travels 2000 miles by plane;
  • Drive 1,300 miles in a utility vehicle;
  • Drives 1,900 miles in a midsize car;
  • Drive 6,000 miles in a hybrid car;
  • Uses your computer for 10,600 hours;
  • Raises a dairy cow for eight months.

CO emission average2 per annum:

  • 4.5 tons for an ordinary North American car;
  • 4.5 tons for an average global citizen;
  • 1.7 tons for an ordinary Brazilian citizen;
  • 6.2 tonnes for the average electricity use of a common house;
  • 21 tons for the average US citizen;
  • 1.5 million tons for a 500 MW gas power plant;
  • 8.3 million tons for a former 1,000MW coal-fired power plant;
  • 6 billion tons for the United States as a whole;
  • 25 billion tons for the planet as a whole.

Data source: A Consumer's Guide to Retail Carbon Offset Providers, Clean Air-Cool Planet, 2006.

What is the average cost of reducing greenhouse gases?




$ 584

European Union

$ 273


$ 186

Only with Annex I countries

$ 82

Including non-Annex I countries

$ 28

* Per ton of carbon

Sources: Ellerman et. al apud Rocha, 2003, for Japan, EU and US, IEA apud Conejero, 2006, for average Annex I countries and including non-Annex I countries.


Some currents argue that carbon credits end up favoring the market rather than the environment, and others argue that they are certified as authorizing developed countries the right to pollute. However, each country has a maximum quota of carbon credits that it can purchase to meet Kyoto Protocol targets; therefore, the so-called "right to pollute" is limited.

For carbon credit technologies claimed by interested nations must undergo a university-level analysis to prove (mathematically) what has or has not been released into the atmosphere.