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Why does this plum/apricot hybrid look like brains?
- Here's a photo of what a normal fruit on the tree looks like.
- Location is Zone 5, east of Toronto.
- There are about 20 other fruits on the tree. This the only fruit on the tree that has this problem.
- The date is June 26, 2019 (although plants have been delayed by about 3 weeks this year due to unusually cool and rainy weather).
- I have had lots of disease problems on my prunus this year due to the wet weather.
It is difficult to say, but it is likely due to disease. Many plant diseases have the effect of convincing plant tissues that they are some other organ than what they actually are, which leads to deformations.
I was not able to find anything that looked as dramatic as the image that you show, but there are similar diseases in stone fruits that deform fruit:
- Plum pox potyvirus: http://download.ceris.purdue.edu/file/1424
- Plum pocket fungus/"Bent banana disease": https://pnwhandbooks.org/plantdisease/host-disease/prune-plum-prunus-spp-plum-pockets, http://shropshireprunedamson.com/a-bad-case-of-bent-banana-disease/
I hope that this is helpful.
This is a guess, but perhaps the result of an infection by a fungal plant pathogen related to Taphrina deformans. T deformans infects species of the genus Prunus (i.e. the genus of prunes and apricots), but it's best known for causing peach leaf curl in another Prunus species, peaches.
For example, see this image of T. deformans infecting a leaf in Catalonia, Spain:
Source: flickriver; Credit: esat_ahi
trees infected with T. deformans will experience leaf puckering and distortion, acquiring a characteristic downward and inward curl. Leaves will also undergo chlorosis, turning a pale green or yellow, and later show a red or purple tint
And guess what? According to Wikipedia:
The fungus has higher infection rates following cooler, damper winters.
Are you sure your infected plant part is a fruit and not a grossly infected leaf? (Did you cut open the infected fruit to examine it closer)?
If it is T. deformans, Wikipedia summarizes some good management strategies:
Because infection depends on a wet environment, appropriate irrigation of crops can help control pathogen dispersal. Although some sources also suggest thinning fruit to control the spread of disease, sanitation and culturing practices alone are insufficient to manage the pathogen. Fungicide is preferred; chlorothalonil and ziram are favored, and copper is an organic option. Fungicide application requires the correct timing and complete coverage of the crop. It is recommended that growers spray fungicides after leaf-fall, or after 90% senescence of leaves. In wetter climates, where multiple sprays may be necessary, spraying is recommended in the late fall and in late winter or early spring. Post-infection spraying of fungicide is inadequate to control the disease.
I still think T. deformans seems like a possible cause of your plum disease, but…
Apparently, there is a closely related species to T deformans called Taphrina communis, which causes Plum pocket by instead infecting the fruits of plums.
According to Kansas State University Research and Extension:
In contrast to peach leaf curl, symptoms of plum pocket are most conspicuous on the fruit. Small, whitish spots develop on young plums soon after blossom. The spots enlarge and eventually cover the entire fruit. Seed fails to form in infected plums; the fruit becomes hollow and enlarges to many times normal size. At this stage, the distorted plums have a red to grayish tint. Young shoots and leaves may be deformed and killed by the disease, but these symptoms are not as common as in peach leaf curl.
I couldn't find any pictures that matched your tree's symptoms, and truthfully the symptoms of plum pocket don't quite match what you're describing. However, for completeness sake, I thought I'd add this information here.
Black knot is a common fungal disease of Prunus trees including ornamental, edible, and native plum and cherry trees.
Hard swollen black galls (tumor like growths) form on branches and occasionally on trunks.
Many Prunus trees tolerate black knot. Tolerant trees have many galls throughout the tree with few negative effects on the health of the tree.
Some Prunus trees are more severely affected by black knot. In these trees, leaves and shoots wilt and die on branches with galls.
Management will vary depending on how severely the tree is affected by black knot.
Nine New Summer Fruits That Taste Like Candy
Ah, summer. Fruit stands, farmers' markets, and produce departments are piled high with strawberries, cherries, and&hellipcotton candy grapes? That's right: In recent years, crazy-flavored fruits and fruit hybrids&mdashthink lime/kumquat, plum/apricot, and raspberry/blackberry combos&mdashhave been popping up alongside ho-hum baskets of peaches and plums. And while they sound a little scary, these frankenfruits are typically the products of cross-pollination, or cross-breeding&mdashnot genetic modification. Next time you're cruising the produce aisle, keep your eyes peeled for these nine candylike creations:
1. Cotton Candy Grapes
No need to hit up a circus for a taste of that spun sugar you got your hands sticky with as a kid. Scoop up Grapery's cotton candy-flavored green grapes, freeze, and enjoy as a sweet summer treat. A half-cup serving contains 14 g sugar, slightly more than regular green grapes, which have 12.5 g sugar per half-cup.
These white strawberries look like something straight out of Willy Wonka's factory. In reality, they're a simple cross between a Hawaiian strawberry and the common garden-variety strawberry. But the pineapple flavor is nothing short of magic. It comes at a price, though: Pineberries have five times as many calories as regular strawberries. Find them in Dean & DeLuca stores or order a plant and grow 'em yourself.
3. SunGold Kiwifruits
This hybrid tastes something like a cross between a mango and a strawberry. Although slightly more candylike compared to the OG green fruits (55 calories and 10 g sugar per SunGold versus 40 calories and 6 g sugar per regular kiwi), SunGolds contain twice as much vitamin C&mdashjust one of these sunny suckers meets your daily requirement. Look for them on supermarket shelves June through January.
4. Purple Wonder Strawberries
Sweeter than the regular red variety, Purple Wonders are the fruits of Cornell scientists' curiosity. This breed of berry is especially high in antioxidants. Not available in most grocery stores, you can order the plants from burpee.com for your backyard or fire-escape garden.
This blackberry-raspberry hybrid is bursting with sweet-tart flavor. The ruby red berries are also loaded with vitamin C and have half the calories of raspberries. They're only in season July through mid-August and tend to yield less in a harvest than their raspberry cousins. Because of their rarity, tayberries can usually only be spotted at farmers' markets. Scoop them up while you can!
Spanish for "white gold," this cross between a pomelo and a white grapefruit doesn't have the tangy bite of regular grapefruit. These things are packed with potassium and fiber and make a sweet addition to summer salads. Look for them at farmers' markets or in mainstream supermarkets like Shop Rite.
A cross between a Key lime and a kumquat, this sweet-and-sour fruit makes a great on-the-go snack. The skin is edible, so you can bite into these babies peel and all. Pick them up at Whole Foods.
The pluot, a cross between a plum and an apricot, is the second attempt at fusing these two fruits (Plumcots came first). With a sweeter plumlike taste, pluots are high in sugar, so munch in moderation. Pluot varieties can typically be found in grocery stores like Whole Foods.
9. Moon Drops
The out-of-this-world shape of these fingerlike purple grapes makes them look a little like Jolly Ranchers. Except you can enjoy the strange tubelike grape hybrids without worrying about artificial sugars and colors. Moon Drops will hit the produce aisle starting in late August.
A plant pundit comments on plants, the foibles and fun of academic life, and other things of interest.
Pluot?Pluot? Wasn't that formerly a planet? Actually it's plum-like fruit that is a back-cross hybrid between a plum-apricot hybrid and a plum, all part of the genus Prunus. In general they are most like a plum, but with the flavor intensified by the apricot parent. They are actually better than either parent. Pluots are a good summer fruit, and here's a good idea. If you are BBQing some chicken, grill a few pluot halves for a few minutes on each side. Their flavor when hot is just great, tart-sweet intense plumness.
If you combine a thinly sliced pluot with a cup of white wine, 1/2 cup of torn basil leaves, and 1 tsp. slivered ginger it makes a great marinade for chicken and pork as well.
Meh, I've tried them, and while I wouldn't turn one away if it were offered to me, I much prefer plums.
Stone fruits are funny that way. Almost all of them can be totally blah under some circumstances, and wonderful under others. Mrs. Phactor just scored some totally wonderful red haven peaches that are to die for. Guess you have to ask for a taste before buying.
I had my first pluot today. Selected a really ripe one on purpose. Had to stand over the sink to eat it -- it was that juicy. Would definitely buy it again.
Plus? It didn't make my mouth itch like plums often do. Was a win/win for me.
I tried one today for the first time and it does tastes better than any of its parent fruits :)
There is not a large following from growers when it comes to this strain because Runtz growers have kept a tight lid on the seeds of this weed. The industry is quite small at this stage and there aren’t many suppliers of this strain but here is how you can try to find it.
- You can try reaching out to Runtz Crew to get it directly and to get a quality product. They are based in California but most probably, they do deliveries nationwide where marijuana is legal.
- Try asking your local dispensary. They may have a supply of this strain, so it is worth a shot. If they don’t have it on stock, ask them to try and order it for you.
- You can also try different online dispensaries and inquire if they do not supply this particular strain. They might be willing to assist and even order it for you specifically.
There aren’t any specific guidelines that are available to the public about growing this strain. Alternatively, you can follow the guidelines of growing similar strains and the results might be just as good. Hybrid strains like this one are usually versatile and can be planted indoors and outdoors. The climate is usually cool because the heat might suck out all the nutrients and make it not taste and have the same effect.
Wolf-dog hybrid (hybrid for short) is a term used to describe an animal that is part wolf and part domestic dog. Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and wolves (Canis lupus) share an evolutionary past and thus share many physical and behavioral traits.
Wolves are wild animals, and they are shaped by evolutionary pressures that allow them to find food, keep themselves safe, and produce offspring. The genetics that they express in the environments they live in allow them to survive, without the help of humans (Addams, and Miller 2012)
Dogs evolved from wolves through a centuries-long process of domestication. Domestication is the process by which a wild animal adapts to living with humans by being selectively bred by humans over thousands of years.
This photo shows a mid wolf content wolf hybrid at the W.O.L.F. Sanctuary in Colorado.
Through this process, a dog’s behavior, life cycle and physiology have become permanently altered from that of a wolf. In essence, the selective breeding process has put a different set of pressures on dogs, shaping them so that they are more dependent on humans for their survival and make them flexible to our way of living. The genes they express, have been altered to varying degrees from their wild counterpart and help them live that domestic life well (Addams, and Miller 2012).
Wolves and dogs are interfertile, meaning they can breed and produce viable offspring. In other words, wolves can interbreed with dogs, and their offspring are capable of producing offspring themselves. Although hybrids can occur naturally in the wild, they are rare because the territorial nature of wolves leads them to protect their home ranges from intruding canines such as dogs, coyotes and other wolves.
Governed by their instincts, wolves, both in the wild and in captivity, exhibit behavior that is relatively consistent. Their behavioral characteristics have been studied and observed for many decades by researchers, and much has been published about their social dynamics, hunting behavior and territorial nature. Thanks to the researchers’ hard work, we are able to understand the wolf’s reactions to different situations based on their inherent instincts. However, just as with any wild animal, their behavior will always retain some unpredictability.
People who own hybrids often find that their pet’s behavior makes it a challenge to care for. The diversity of genetic composition even within one litter of hybrid pups leads to a wide range of appearances and behavior patterns among all hybrids, thus making their behavior inconsistent and more difficult to predict.
Physical and mental development
Wolves and dogs mature at different rates, which makes the physical and mental development of a hybrid animal unpredictable. Sexual maturity of wolves signals a shift in hormone quantity and balance. This hormonal change is often coupled with behavioral changes in the animal.
When a wolf reaches sexual maturity (anywhere from 1 to 4 years of age), their role in the pack often changes from that of a pup to an adult expected to contribute to the pack. Status becomes much more important, and the animal may begin testing its packmates to achieve a higher-ranking position in the pack. Testing or challenging of packmates can be transferred onto a human “leader” when a wolf is kept in captivity, causing the animal to be perceived as stubborn, bold or even aggressive.
Domestic dogs tend to mature much earlier (6 to 8 months of age)., but the challenging behavior still exists, although it is typically less intense in most breeds compared to wolves. Hybrids can exhibit any combination of wolf or dog maturation rates and behavioral changes.
Additionally, the territorial instinct of wolves to protect their food source by establishing a home range through defecation and urination may be transferred to the owner’s home. A couch or corner of the room may take the place of a tree or rock. Dogs, on the other hand, through domestication, have lost that instinct to urinate or defecate anywhere they feel is their territory and are easily trained to eliminate in a designated area.
Hybrids, being a mix of these two distinct behavior patterns, may have any degree of territorial or testing behavior-from one end of the spectrum to the other.
This photo is of a mid wolf content hybrid at the W.O.L.F. Sanctuary in Colorado.
This photo is of a mid wolf content hybrid at the W.O.L.F. Sanctuary in Colorado.
Hybrids as pets
Whether or not hybrids make good pets is perhaps the biggest contention. The reality is that there is an animal with a genetic stew that includes contributions from a line of dogs that has been domesticated over the centuries compiled with a contribution of an animal that has not.
Wolves are social by nature and demand a great amount of attention and interaction from their pack. This expectation translates onto the owner when a wolf is kept in captivity. Often, potential hybrid owners overlook the important task of understanding the nature of the wild wolf and the domestic dog and become overwhelmed when their “pet” begins to show behavioral traits that are unexpected and unmanageable.
One organization educating the public about the issues of wolf and hybrid ownership is Wolf Park. Wolf Park explains that while many individuals do make an effort to become educated about the potential outcome of owning a wolf or hybrid, others unfortunately do not. This results in the animals being kept in an environment where their social and behavioral needs are not met. In these situations, the animals frequently spend their days in small cages or tied to chains, with very poor quality of life.
When any animal, wild or domestic, is kept in conditions inadequate to their mental and physical needs, there is a safety risk for humans. This risk is almost always preventable through proper preparation before the animal is purchased and continued through responsible care for the animal over the duration of its life.
Every year, thousands of pet wolves or hybrids are abandoned, rescued or euthanized because people purchase an animal they were not prepared to care for. A few facilities exist around the country that take in unwanted canines, but their resources are usually very limited. Education about the behavior, health and containment of wolves and hybrids and about laws pertinent to their ownership before people buy may prevent hardships for both human and animal.
Myths Regarding Wolf Hybrids
MYTH: A wolf hybrid will make a better guard dog.
FACT: Due to the shy nature of wolves, hybrids usually make poor protection dogs. Aggressive tendencies, if any, in the hybrid may be fear induced and as such, can be unpredictable and hard to control.
MYTH: A wolf hybrid will live longer than a dog.
FACT: The life span of a wolf in captivity is 12-14 years – the same as a large domestic dog.
MYTH: Hybrids are healthier than dogs, and are less prone to disease.
FACT: Wolves and dogs are prone to the same infectious diseases. There may be some question as to the efficacy of standard dog vaccines in wolves and some hybrids.
MYTH: Huskies and malamutes are part wolf.
FACT: Huskies and malamutes are breeds of dogs, like any other.
Wolf Content in the Hybrid
Many breeders who deal in wolf hybrids promote the ‘wolf content’ of the pups and even set their prices according to the ‘amount of wolf blood’ in the litter. This is not based on sound biology or genetics.
When one breeds a dog with a wolf, the offspring will inherit a set of genes from each parent, and are indeed 50/50 – that is, one-half dog and one-half wolf. However, when these animals are backcrossed with other wolves, dogs, or hybrids there is no way to calculate or manipulate which genes are passed to any individual offspring. Often breeders believe, for example, that a 50 x 50 hybrid backcrossed with a 100% wolf would yield an offspring that is 75% wolf. However, that would only be an AVERAGE amount of wolf in a large number of backcrosses. Any INDIVIDUAL animal might inherit all of the dog genes from the hybrid and be 50 x 50 – both physically and behaviorally. Or conversely, any individual could be predominantly wolf, or any variation or combination in between. It is like throwing 50 blue marbles representing a male parent and 50 yellow marbles representing the female parent into a bag and randomly selecting the 50 marbles that will represent the DNA of one offspring. You don’t know what you will get. The ideal wolf hybrid would be one that looks like a wolf and behaves like a dog, but unfortunately, many times one ends up with an animal that looks like a dog and has the perceived “obstinate” nature of a wolf.
There are genetic tests available. Those tests look at 3-4 genetic markers, depending on whether it is a male or female. According to the testing lab, what the test can tell the owner is whether there has been wild wolf DNA in that domestic dogs lineage in the past three generations. Others don’t see the test as reliable yet, that what the information shows is that the DNA found simply does not match any known domestic dog DNA on file. This all contributes to the uncertainty of how to determine what is a hybrid. Many people working with hybrids look at a number of factors: physical appearance, and behavioral history to make an educated decision about whether an animal is a hybrid. The result is to label hybrid as low, medium or high content wolf depending on the degree to which the animal looks and behaves like a wolf.
This photo is of a low wolf content hybrid at the W.O.L.F. Sanctuary in Colorado.
Legal Aspects of Wolf Hybrid Ownership
Laws vary from area to area. In some states, hybrids are illegal to own, in other states hybrids are classified a wild animals and owners are required to possess the same type of permits and caging as for a wolf. Yet in other states, hybrids are regulated as dogs, needing only proper vaccinations and licenses and finally, some states leave it up to counties and cities to set their own regulations around hybrids.
Rabies vaccinations in hybrids are also complicated, because there has been no vaccine developed and approved for use in wolves or wolfdogs. The reasons for this are also complicated, as it is not seen as profitable by drug companies and to test and create the vaccine, to complete this process would require extensive testing on wolves and wolfdog hybrids, which is seen as unpopular.
Owners are encouraged to provide the rabies vaccine their animals regardless, but some vets do not treat hybrids for liability reasons, particularly where it is illegal to own them, and those vets that will treat them often require owners to sign a waiver that states they understand the vaccine is being administered for “off label” use and cannot be relied upon to deliver full protection against rabies. In many municipalities, if a known or suspected hybrid bites someone it is impounded and maybe euthanized and tested for rabies, regardless of vaccination status.
What does all this mean?
This all means that the issue of hybrids is very complicated. A few people are successful in keeping hybrids, but most people for a variety of reasons are not prepared to understand or provide for the physical or psychological needs of the animal. The higher the content wolf the less likely they can be kept as a house pet and will require special housing, socialization and care. There are legal issues to consider, as well as knowing that some vets are not willing to provide care, and that the rabies vaccine in not approved for use in these animals.
Identifying a wolf, a dog and a hybrid can also be very challenging because of how closely related wolves and dogs are. Being critical in evaluation about behavior, and how adapted a canid is to living in a home with human companions considering safety of the humans, community and ability to live in harmony is most important, and the reality is that animals that are more wolf like in their behavior are unlikely to do well living in our homes.
Here are additional resources to consider when researching wolf-dog hybrids:
Between Wolf and Dog by Jessica Addams and Andrew Miller
Apricots are grown commercially on apricot seedling, peach (P. persica), and plum (P. cerasifera, myrobalan seedling and 29C P. cerasifera × P. munsoniana, marianna 2624) roots. The main plum rootstocks include myrobalan seedling, myrobalan 29C and marianna 2624. Plum rootstocks are characteristically resistant to wet and poorly drained soil conditions. The union between apricot and plum root reportedly is not as sound as apricot on peach or apricot root and occasionally some apricot varieties break off at the union during heavy wind storms. Apricots growing on plum roots may not be as productive as those grown on apricot or peach roots. Peach root for apricot is quite popular. The stocks include those propagated from Lovell, Nemaguard, and Nemared seedling. Apricots grown on peach are productive, but peach cannot tolerate wet and poorly drained soil conditions as well as plum. Peach roots are very susceptible to Phytophthora root and crown rots. Apricots grown on apricot seedling roots are not as common as those on peach roots. Apricot roots are not as resistant to wet soil or Phytophthora as plum and also do not have the resistance to nematodes as does Nemaguard peach root. However, apricot roots are thought occasionally to impart better fruit quality and productivity to apricots. (See PEACHES AND NECTARINES .)
A rootstock, developed by Floyd Zaiger and named Citation, is a peach × plum hybrid. It has been shown to increase fruit size and advance fruit maturity of Royal/Blenheim but did not alter the production characteristics of Patterson apricot when compared to marianna 2624. The rootstock may impart some tree size control to selected apricot varieties. However, apricots growing on Citation have shown reduced levels of zinc and nitrogen which suggested reduced uptake of those nutrients by the rootstock and possibly reduced vigor.
Purple Fruits and Vegetables
Image: Coconut and Berries
Roasted, juiced, spiralised, souped or blended into vegan smoothies, beetroot is a nutritional powerhouse packed with vitamins, minerals and antioxidants. And if that wasn't enough, it's even low in fat.
Beetroot is also great for haute cuisine. Check out this stunning seafood recipe from chef Antimo Merone, at 8 1/2 Otto e Mezzo Bombana restaurant, for a lobster salad with beetroot puree.
Blueberries have long been recognised as a superfood of the fruit world, catapulting them into the spotlight for those health-conscious consumers. High in antioxidants, this purple fruit is delicious eaten in its natural state, or baked into desserts.
Find our recipes for mouth-watering blueberry desserts here.
Eggplants - or aubergines - are a versatile purple vegetable that can be eaten any number of ways. Full of vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre, they are also said to have the potential to lower cholesterol and help manage weight. So, plenty of reasons to put eggplant on the plate.
Try our 5 easy eggplant dishes – perfect for a weekday dinner.
Figs are rich in natural health benefiting phyto-nutrients, anti-oxidants and vitamins. Dried figs are a great concentrated source of minerals and vitamins.
Find out more in the A-Z of figs – they were one of Cleopatra's favourite fruits.
5. Purple Potato
Purple potatoes are reported to contain four times as many antioxidants as russet potatoes thanks to anthocyanin, the pigment that creates the purple colour in the potatoes' skin and flesh.
Turn those purple potatoes into tasty chips with this recipe for beet and potato chips with rock salt and rosemary.
6. Red Cabbage
Red cabbage or purple cabbage is another awesome purple vegetable packed with antioxidants, nutrients, vitamins and minerals, as well as dietary fibre.
7. Purple Cauliflower
Tired of white cauliflower? Try purple cauliflower, rich in vitamin C, with a half-cup of florets reportedly providing nearly half of the daily requirement for vitamin C.
Purple cauliflower also packs a nutritional punch when it comes to fibre, vitamin A, folate, calcium, potassium and selenium. All good news when it comes to staying healthy.
8. Purple Asparagus
This asparagus is so sweet it can be eaten raw, meaning you get to enjoy all those health-enhancing antioxidants to their full potential.
The rich colour of blackberries is a giveaway that they have some of the highest antioxidant levels of all fruits. Rich in bioflavonoids and Vitamin C, they are low on sodium and calories. Enjoy them naturally to benefit from their nutritional goodness.
10. Purple Carrots
Believe it or not, a few hundred years ago, all cultivated carrots were purple the orange carrot wasn't cultivated until the late 16th century. It's unsurprising to see purple carrots sprouting up again given their stunning colour coupled with their anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidants.
11. Acai Berries
The açaí berry, a naturally blueish-purple fruit, is packed with antioxidants as well as being rich in fibre, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins A, B, C and E, mineral salts (calcium, iron, phosphorus and potassium). and the list keeps going.
Find out more fascinating facts about acai, from A-Z here.
12. Purple Corn
Eye-catching purple corn contains a variety of phytonutrients (plant nutrients) including massive amounts of phenolics and anthocyanins, suggesting they are high in anti-oxidants. essentially helping us to stay healthy.
Try this recipe for purple corn tortillas.
This purple yam is a staple of Filipino cuisine, where it is used in both savoury and sweet dishes. Ube is rich in fibre and contains virtually no fat - it's a great purple vegetable to add to your daily rotation.
An honorary member of the purple fruit or vegetable family, lavender is used in a variety of recipes and is prized for its health benefits. This fragrant herb aids in relaxation and stress relief.
15. Red Grapes
Image via Sarah Ackerman/Flickr
Did you know grapes are botanically classified as berries? Red grapes, sometimes called purple grapes, are rich in heart-healthy resveratrol, a compound known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
16. Passion Fruit
This purple-skinned fruit reveals a bright yellow interior with sweet and sour seeds packed with flavour and antioxidants.
Passion fruit is rich in phytonutrients, as well as vitamins A and C. Eat it fresh to enjoy the maximum benefits. Check out: Passion Fruit From A to Z: 26 Things to Know
When it comes to purple foods plums should always be on your list. This humble fruit comes in different varieties but the most popular one in the United States is the purple plum (also called black plum) with yellow flesh.
Plums are rich in fibre and help ease digestion, as well as being a wonderful source of vitamin A.
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Elm trees are a handsome and graceful tree that grows vigorously. They make great street, lawn and shade trees. These elm trees are very adaptable to New Mexico heat, cold, alkaline soils and wind.
Triumph Elm Ulmus 'Morton Glossy' is a fast growing tree, up to 55' high and 45' wide. It's shape is upright, oval to vase with dark green glossy leaves that turn yellow in fall.
Frontier Elm Ulmus hybrids is one of the smaller elms at 35' by 25'. It's pyramidal in shape and produces no seeds. It's leaves are small, glossy and turn a long lasting reddish-purple to burgundy in fall.
Emerald Sunshine Elm Ulmus propinqua is fast growing, up to 35' by 25' that grows into a vase shape. It's deeply corrugated dark green leaves turn to a yellow fall color. This elm has superior performance in hot, arid, windswept areas.
Accolade Elm Ulmus japonica x wilsoniana 'Morton' arching limbs and a graceful vase shape characterize this outstanding elm. It's green glossy leaves turn yellow in fall. It grows up up to 70' by 60'.
Allee Elm Ulmus parvifolia, Chinese or Lacebark Elm is a medium sized elm that will grow up to 50' by 35' with a rounded crown and long pendulous branching. One of the most ornamental features of this tree is it's mottled bark. On mature trees, the bark flakes of to reveal gray, cream, orange, brown and green.