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Name of dominant dinosaur

Name of dominant dinosaur


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I seem to remember reading some time ago about a dinosaur appearing very prominently in the fossil record, with continent-wise distribution. The layer is known specifically for having so many fossils of this dinosaur and might be named as such. Terms "cow-sized", "vegetarian", and "near to extinction event" come to mind. Does this ring a bell?

My memory might be so faulty that it could be an early amphibian, reptile or even mammal!


The closest example I can think of is Lystrosaurus, which was one of the most common animals in the early Triassic period. It was distributed across many modern continents, and was roughly the size of a pig or cow, depending on the species. Lystrosaurus was not a dinosaur, despite its name.

Excerpt from the Wikipedia page (emphasis mine):

Lystrosaurus is notable for dominating southern Pangaea during the Early Triassic for millions of years. At least one unidentified species of this genus survived the end-Permian mass extinction and, in the absence of predators and of herbivorous competitors, went on to thrive and re-radiate into a number of species within the genus, becoming the most common group of terrestrial vertebrates during the Early Triassic; for a while 95% of land vertebrates were Lystrosaurus. This is the only time that a single species or genus of land animal dominated the Earth to such a degree


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Dinosaur is the name of large extinct reptiles of the Mesozoic Era,
during which they were the dominant land animals on Earth. The term was
proposed as a formal zoologic name in 1842 by the British anatomist Sir Richard
Owen, in reference to large fossil bones unearthed in southern England. The
various kinds of dinosaurs are classified in two formal categories, the orders
Saurischia and Ornithischia, within the subclass Archosauria.

The first recorded dinosaur remains found consisted of a few teeth and
bones. They were discovered in 1882 in Sussex, England, by an English doctor,
Gideon Mantell, who named them iguanodon. About the same time, other fossil
teeth and bones were found near Oxford, England, by Rev. William Buckland.
These were named Megalosaurus. Thousands of specimens have since been
discovered nearly worldwide.

Different types of dinosaurs varied greatly in form and size, and they
were adapted for diverse habitats. Their means of survival can only be
identified from their fossil remains, and some identifications are in dispute.
They ranged in weight from 4 to 6 lb., in the case of the compsognathus, and up
to 160,000 lb., in the case of the brachiosaurus. Most dinosaurs were large,
weighing more than 1,100 lb., and few weighed less than 100 lb. Most were
herbivores, but some saurischians were carnivorous. The majority were four-
footed but some ornithischians and all carnivores walked on their hind legs.

Always classified as reptiles, dinosaurs have traditionally been assumed
to have been reptilian in their physiology, cold-blooded, and ectothermic. In
recent years several different lines of evidence have been interpreted as
indicating that dinosaurs may have had warm blood and high rates of metabolism,
comparable to birds and mammals. Evidence supporting this view includes upright
posture and carriage mammallike microscopical structure of bones skeletal
features suggestive of high activity and specialized food-processing dentitions
and low ratios of dinosaurian predators to prey animals, both suggesting high
food requirements. The evidence is not conclusive--all the facts can be
alternatively explained--but some dinosaurs may have been endothermic.

The reproductive means of most dinosaurs is as yet unknown. Fossil eggs,
attributed to one of the horned dinosaurs and a sauropod, have been discovered
in Mongolia and France. Fragments that are presumed to be of dinosaur eggs have
also been found in Brazil, Portugal, Tanzania, and in the United States,
Colorado, Montana, and Utah. In Montana, Utah, and Alberta, Canada, fossils of
unhatched dinosaur eggs have been discovered. This evidence indicates egg-
laying reproduction in dinosaurs, like most modern reptiles. A few scientists
believe that some dinosaurs may have given birth to living young, but no
conclusive evidence has yet been found to support this.

The two orders of dinosaurs are distinguished by numerous features, the
most diagnostic being the arrangement of the three bones of the pelvious. In
saurischians, these bones were arranged in a triradiate pattern similar to that
of modern crocodilians and lizards the term Saurischia means lizard hip. The
ornithischian pelvis was usually rectangular or tetraradiate hence the name,
which means bird hip.

During the 140-million-year reign of the dinosaurs, many new varieties
evolved and older kinds died out. Not all kinds became extinct at once but
the last of the dinosaurs disappeared at the end of the Cretaceous. Many other
animal kinds died out at about the same time, including the ichthyosaur,
mosasour, plesiosaur, flying reptile, and a variety of lower organisms. What
brought about such widespread extinction among so many different kinds of
organisms is not known it must, however, have involved major changes in the
environment. Their extinction has been attributed to many causes, including
cosmic radiation, exploding supernova, world-wide fluctuations in sea level,
acid rain caused by volcanic activity, climatic change, and continental drift.
Independent evidence indicates that sea levels did fall and temperatures dropped
at the end of the Mesozoic Era, a time when continents were drifting apart and
new mountain ranges were rising. Although none of these conditions is likely to
have been solely responsible for the extinction of the dinosaurs, collectively
they may have been important.

Whatever the cause, the dinosaurs are now gone. In a way, however, they
may remain. That is, many paleontologists consider birds almost certainly to
have evolved from some small bipedal dinosaur during the Jurassic. If so, the
children of the dinosaurs still exist today.


Biology of the dinosaurs

The dinosaurs shared some common physical characteristics, such as the presence of two openings on opposite sides of their skulls and 25 vertebrae. However, the dinosaurs also differed from each other in many important ways. They displayed an enormous range of forms and functions, and they filled a wide array of ecological niches. Some of the dinosaurs were, in fact, quite bizarre in their shape and, undoubtedly, their behavior.

Most species of dinosaurs had a long tail and long neck, but this was not the case for all species. Most of the dinosaurs walked on their four legs, although some species were bipedal, using only their rear legs for locomotion. Their forelegs were greatly reduced in size and probably used only for grasping. The species that walked on four legs were all peaceful herbivores. In contrast, many of the bipedal dinosaurs were fast-running predators.

The teeth of dinosaur species were highly diverse. Many species were exclusively herbivorous, and their teeth were correspondingly adapted for cutting and grinding vegetation. Other dinosaurs were fierce predators, and their teeth were shaped like serrated (notched) knives. These teeth were undoubtedly used to seize and stab their prey, cutting it into smaller pieces that could be swallowed whole.

Until recently, it was widely believed that dinosaurs were rather stupid, slow-moving, cold-blooded creatures. However, some scientists now believe that dinosaurs were intelligent, social, quick-moving, and probably warm-blooded animals. This question is still rather controversial. Scientists have not yet reached agreement as to whether at least some of the dinosaurs were able to regulate their body temperature by producing heat through metabolic reactions.


The Dinosauria

Not everything big and dead is a dinosaur. All too often, books written (or movies made) for a popular audience include animals such as mammoths, mastodons, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ichthyosaurs, and the sail-backed Dimetrodon. Dinosaurs are a specific subgroup of the archosaurs, a group that also includes crocodiles, pterosaurs, and birds. although pterosaurs are close relations, they are not true dinosaurs. Even more distantly related to dinosaurs are the marine reptiles, which include the plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs. Mammoths and mastodons are mammals and did not appear until many millions of years after the close of the Cretaceous period. Dimetrodon is neither a reptile nor a mammal, but a basal synapsid, i.e., an early relative of the ancestors of mammals.

Find answers to some commonly asked questions about dinosaurs:

Visit these special exhibits on some popular dinosaurs:

More about dinosaurs:
(select Systematics to learn about specific dinosaur groups)


Tyrannosaurus Rex

Dave and Les Jacobs / Getty Images

We'll never know if Tyrannosaurus rex was particularly fiercer or scarier than other, less-popular tyrannosaurs like Albertosaurus or Alioramus—or even whether it hunted live prey or spent most of its time feasting on already-dead carcasses. Whatever the case, there's no question that T. rex was a fully functional killing machine when circumstances demanded, considering its five- to eight-ton bulk, sharp eyesight, and huge head studded with numerous, sharp teeth. (You have to admit, though, that its tiny arms lent it a slightly comical appearance.)


Hypacrosaurus

DEA PICTURE LIBRARY / Getty Images

The name Hypacrosaurus means "nearly the highest lizard (in rank)," to the Tyrannosaurus, and that pretty much sums up this duck-billed dinosaur's fate: It has almost, but not quite, purchased a hold on the popular imagination. One of its more distinguishing features is a tall, jagged ridge of spines trailing the vertebrae and a hollow, bony crest on its long head. What makes the Hypacrosaurus discovery important is that the nesting grounds of this dinosaur—complete with eggs, hatchlings, and juveniles—were discovered in an area of Montana, shedding light on exactly what was happening there 70 million years ago. All of the dinosaurs were instantly killed and the entire scene was well preserved in a volcanic ashfall. Information gleaned from this discovery included: Hypacrosaurus breeding was prolific with nests of up to 20 eggs, while mortality rates were likely high with young Hypacrosaurus hunted by Troodons (small, bird-like dinosaurs) and adults preyed upon by much larger Tyrannosaurs (also known as tyrant lizards). The specimens of the Hypacrosaurus from Montana, as well as specimens found in Alberta, Canada, were examined in detail and have given paleontologists a valuable glimpse into dinosaur family life during the late Cretaceous period. (A close runner-up in this category is Maiasaura or "good mother lizard," another plant-eating duckbill dinosaur that left abundant evidence of its social behavior.)


Allosaurus Dinosaur Fun Facts

Living mainly in the late Jurassic Period, Allosaurids were the most common predator in North America at the time. Allosaurus stood on two sturdy legs, had a large head, and held its big tail out to balance its body. It could grow up to 39 feet in length. It also had two small forearms, but unlike similar dinosaurs with more feeble front limbs, Allosaurus’ front limbs ended in hands armed with three large, strong claws.

  • Its name means “different lizard” because the vertebrae of its spine are different from those of other, similar dinosaurs.
  • It was a meat-eater, and groups of Allosauruses probably joined together in packs to hunt larger sauropods.
  • It could unhinge its flexible jaws like a snake to eat huge chunks of meat that it bit off of its prey with its long, serrated teeth.

An animatronic Allosaurus at Brookfield Zoo in Chicago measures 39.60′ long x 6.60′ wide x 11.22′ tall.

Jurassic Period

Allosaurus’ heyday was during the late Jurassic Period, about 150 to 140 million years ago, where this theropod dinosaur trolled the lush swamps and sub-tropical forests in search of prey. The earth’s geography was very different the great landmass known as “Pangea” (Greek for “all land”) had gradually broken apart, causing the continents to slowly drift farther and farther from one another. Greenland was sandwiched between the eastern coast of North America and the western coast of Europe, and South America and Africa were about one-third their current distance. Huge sharks and marine crocodiles swam through the oceans.

Different Lizard

It is interesting to note that this dinosaur’s name means ‘different lizard’. The ‘different’ in ‘different lizard’ probably comes from its unusual vertebrae, which was much lighter than those of other dinosaurs during the time. The Allosaurus lived in the late Jurassic period, dating back to nearly 150 million years ago!

The dinosaur was named in 1877, by Othniel Marsh who pronounced the name ‘al-oh-saw-rus’. The fossils were discovered in Colorado, USA. Fossils of the Allosaurus were discovered in Colorado, Montana, and New Mexico. They have been unearthed in North America, Europe, Africa, and even Australia.

The Allosaurus was a carnivore that ate stegosaurs and even iguanodonts that ate plants and headed the predator list. The Allosaurus was 12 m long and 10 ft in height, at the hips. It weighed between 4 and 4.5 tons! The Allosaurus was a feared predator and made quite a scary sight with its huge head and saw edge like socket set teeth. The lizard-hipped dinosaur had short arms. It had hands with three fingers on each and this feature made it an advanced theropod of the age. The Allosaurus belonged to the phylum ‘Chordata‘, which implies that it had a hollow nerve chord that culminated in a brain.

Allosaurus Origins

The Allosaurus a member of the Allosaurid family was first discovered during the closing years of the 19th century by Othniel Charles Marsh in 1877. It existed in the late Jurassic period about 150 million years ago and almost all of its fossils have been in the Morrison Formation in North America, as well as in Portugal and Tanzania. The name Allosaurus means “different lizard” and is derived from the Greek root word “allos” meaning “different”.

Allosaurus was discovered and named in the 1870s by paleontologist Othniel C. Marsh. Allosaurus means “different lizard,” so-called by Marsh because of the creature’s lighter vertebrae and s-shaped neck (Enchanted Learning). A great number of Allosaurus fossils, as well as those of Brontosaurus and many other dinosaurs, have been found in the Morrison Formation, a vast expense of rock extending over 12 states, primarily Montana, Wyoming Colorado, and New Mexico, as well as into the Canadian provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. This quarry is located on the former coast of a shallow sea that covered much of western North America about 200 million years ago. The soft sand at the edge of this ancient ocean provided an ideal environment for the preservation of fossils. A nearly complete Allosaurus skeleton was discovered by a Colorado rancher in 1883.

Taxonomy

Like most dinosaurs, the Allosaurus is believed to have had many variations of it’s kind. Scientists have thus far classified about seven dominant kinds of which some of the prominent types include Allosaurus Fragilis, Allosaurus Atrox, Allosaurus Maximus, Allosaurus Amplexus.

Physical Features

In terms of physical structure, the allosaurus like most theropods was of high stature. It’s believed to have grown to about 30ft tall and is almost 40ft in length. Like the T-rex, the most striking feature had to be the size of its skull which was enormous compared to the size of its much shorter neck. Again like the Tyrannosaurus the Allosaurus possessed a huge tail (acted as a counterbalance) and tiny forelimbs consisting of three fingers. It’s estimated weight was around 2.3 metric tons.

Skull & Teeth

The skull of the Allosaurus was estimated to be around 33 inches in length giving it a decent-sized jaw size. Each premaxilla (the bones forming the tip of the snout) held five teeth and each maxilla (the bones in the upper jaw) and dentary (the bones of the lower jaw) had around 14 to 17 teeth giving the Allosaurus plenty of teeth for the size of its skull.

The teeth became shorter, narrower, and more curved as you went towards the back of the skull and were probably constantly replaced during its lifetime. It’s no wonder that teeth comprised a significant proportion of the excavated remains of an Allosaurus.

Some other interesting features about the Allosaurus include the presence of 2 horns that sat above and in front of the eyes and the fact that it had some of the best-developed sinuses and smelling abilities of the theropods.

Behavioral Patterns & Hunting

Scientists have been united in the fact that the Allosaurus was a voracious predator and one of the most feared marauders amongst the dinosaurs. Their preferred victims were herbivorous (plant-eating) dinosaurs like the Sauropods, Ornithopods, and the Stegosaurids.

Out of the above, it’s thought that the Sauropods were probably their most favored food item, due to the extensive presence of Sauropod remains on the teeth of Allosaurus fossils. In the case of Sauropods, studies have shown that the Allosaurus probably tore the flesh off from living Sauropods deferring the kill of its prey for some time.

In terms of hunting behavior, it’s believed that the Allosaurus usually hunted in groups and their huge tail was also a vital component in aiding the trapping of other dinosaur variants as prey. This hunting in groups is attributed as a unique feature in the Allosaurus as it has been observed that most vertebrates do not usually hunt in groups.

This carnivorous dinosaur was also extremely protective about its young, often hunting and gathering food for them till they were fully grown and capable of looking after themselves.

Anti Social

The Allosaurus, like most Theropods, was not very social and is believed to have been exceptionally preserved. This meant that even interactions with other dinosaurs of their own kind were met with distaste. Some scientists believe that the Allosaurus often wounded members of its own clan if any miscommunication or misunderstanding happened. The results of these interactions could often be fatal.

Several scientists believe that the Allosaurus may even have scavenged off the remains of other dead or immobilized Allosaurus dinosaurs.

Allosaurus Young

One of the key differences between the adult and child Allosaur was the huge difference in hind limb length. The hind limbs of a child allosaurus were often considerably longer than the adults which allowed them to move swiftly and catch much smaller and faster types of prey. This would suggest that as the Allosaurus matured it would start hunting larger and stronger prey as it would be incapable of capturing the faster dinosaurs that it might have hunted when younger.


The “arm lizard” was another well-known Jurassic giant, even featuring in the iconic first-glimpse scene in Jurassic Park. Tall rather than long, Brachiosaurus could grow up to 30 metres tall. It had a long neck that allowed it to graze among treetops and long, pillar-like legs that kept its body high off the ground. Its front shoulders were much higher than its haunches, giving it a sloped appearance rather like a giraffe.

The “roof lizard” was a medium-sized herbivore of the late Jurassic. Around 7 metres long and up to 3 tonnes in weight, Stegosaurus had a series of large, bony plates running along its spine. The plates could have been used in display or may have served as heat-regulating devices, both scenarios explaining the mat of blood vessels running through them.

The Stegosaurus had a fearsome defensive weapon in the form of a powerful, spiked tail (the spikes are known as "thagomizers", named after a Gary Larson cartoon!) that could deliver crippling blows to would-be predators.


Dinosaurs

Dinosaurs are a diverse group of animals of the clade Dinosauria that first appeared during the Late epoch of the Triassic period. Although the exact origin and timing of the evolution of dinosaurs is the subject of active research, the current scientific consensus places their origin somewhere between 231 and 243 million BC. They became the dominant terrestrial vertebrates after the Triassic–Jurassic Extinction Event 201 million BC. Their dominance continued through the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods and ended when the Cretaceous-Paleogene Extinction Event led to the extinction of most dinosaur groups 66 million BC.

Until the late 20th Century, all groups of dinosaurs were believed to be extinct however, the fossil record indicates that birds are the modern descendants of feathered dinosaurs, having evolved from flightless theropod ancestors during the Jurassic Period, and are now termed "avian dinosaurs". As such, birds were the only dinosaur lineage to survive the mass extinction event. Throughout the remainder of this article, the term "dinosaur" is sometimes used generically to refer to both the avian and non-avian dinosaurs combined, while at other times it is used to refer to the non-avian dinosaurs specifically, and the avian dinosaurs are sometimes simply referred to as "birds". This article deals primarily with non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs are a varied group of animals from taxonomic, morphological and ecological standpoints. Birds, at over 10000 living species, are the most diverse group of vertebrates besides perciform fish. Using fossil evidence, paleontologists have identified over 500 distinct genera and more than 1000 different species of non-avian dinosaurs.

Dinosaurs are represented on every continent by both extant species and fossil remains. Some are herbivorous, others carnivorous. While dinosaurs were ancestrally bipedal, many extinct groups included quadrupedal species, and some were able to shift between these stances. Elaborate display structures such as horns or crests are common to all dinosaur groups, and some extinct groups developed skeletal modifications such as bony armor and spines. Evidence suggests that egg laying and nest building are additional traits shared by all dinosaurs.

While the modern-day surviving lineage of dinosaurs (birds) are generally small due to the constraints of flight, many prehistoric dinosaurs were large-bodied—the largest sauropod dinosaurs are estimated to have reached lengths of 39.7 meters (130 feet) and heights of 18 meters (59 feet) and were the largest land animals of all time. Still, the idea that non-avian dinosaurs were uniformly gigantic is a misconception based in part on preservation bias, as large, sturdy bones are more likely to last until they are fossilized. Many dinosaurs were quite small: Xixianykus, for example, was only about 50 cm (20 in) long.

Although the word dinosaur literally means "terrible lizard", the name is something of an etymological misnomer even though dinosaurs are related to reptiles, they are not lizards, nor are they descended from them. Instead, dinosaurs did not exhibit characteristics which were traditionally regarded as reptilian, such as a sprawling limb posture or ectothermy (colloquially referred to as "cold-bloodedness"). Additionally, many other prehistoric animals, including mosasaurs, ichthyosaurs, pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, and Dimetrodon, while often popularly conceived of as dinosaurs, are not taxonomically classified as dinosaurs.

Through the first half of the 20th Century, before birds were recognized to be dinosaurs, most of the scientific community believed dinosaurs to have been sluggish and cold-blooded. Most research conducted since the 1970s, however, has indicated that all dinosaurs were active animals with elevated metabolisms and numerous adaptations for social interaction.

Since the first dinosaur fossils were recognized in the early 19th Century, mounted fossil dinosaur skeletons have been major attractions at museums around the world, and dinosaurs have become an enduring part of world culture. The large sizes of some dinosaur groups, as well as their seemingly monstrous and fantastic nature, have ensured dinosaurs' regular appearance in best-selling books and films, such as Jurassic Park. Persistent public enthusiasm for the animals has resulted in significant funding for dinosaur science, and new discoveries are regularly covered by the media.


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About this course

The course has a maximum 5* rating and has been taken by learners from 120+ countries. The course was a Finalist of the 2018 edX Prize for Exceptional Contributions in Online Teaching and Learning.

Ever wondered what it would be like to live in the world of dinosaurs? Yes? Well here’s your chance!

Using the Late Cretaceous fossil site of Erlian, China as an example, we bring you to the Gobi desert, as well as leading international museums and institutions to find out how we reconstruct dinosaur ecosystems.

This biology and life science course will focus on the knowledge we can gain from studying animals and plants. You will learn about a dinosaur’s biology including their appearance, classification and diet. We will take a close look at the mostly meat eating theropod dinosaurs, as well as the main plant eating dinosaurs, the sauropodomorphs and ornithischians. At the end of the course, you will learn how palaeontologists use fossil and modern evidence to reconstruct dinosaurs and their ecosystems.

The course is brought to life with the help of award-winning palaeoartist Julius T. Csotonyi and is led by HKU’s vertebrate palaeontologist Dr Michael Pittman in collaboration with his esteemed colleague Professor Xu Xing of the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Beijing, and Dr Diego Pol of the Museo Paleontologico Egidio Feruglio, Trelew, Argentina. A range of guests from around the World will also share their expertise during the course.


本课程获得最高的5星评级,学员来自超过120多个国家/地区。本课程还入选2018年edX大奖最后10强名单以表扬对网上教学和学习领域的杰出贡献。

想体验一下活在恐龙世界里是怎样吗?

参加我们的免费网上学习课程,感受与恐龙同行的震撼! 以中国二连浩特白垩纪晚期的化石地层作为一个例子,我们将带您来到戈壁沙漠、著名国际博物馆及研究所去探究我们如何重建恐龙的生态系统。 此生物及生命科学课程着重于研究动物和植物。您将会认到识恐龙生物学,包括恐龙的外观、分类和食物。我们将关注近乎全肉食性的兽脚类恐龙,以及主要的草食性恐龙、蜥脚形亚目和鸟臀目恐龙。在本课程的末段,您将会了解到古生物学家如何运用化石和现代的证据来重建恐龙和它们的生态系统。 本课程有赖屡获殊荣的古生物复原画家Julius T. Csotonyi的帮助才得以面世,并由香港大学古脊椎动物学家文嘉棋博士、北京古脊椎动物与古人类研究所徐星教授及阿根廷古生物埃吉迪奧*費格奧博物館Diego Pol博士共同领导。世界各地不同领域的专家也将在本课程中分享他们的专业知识。

El curso posee una calificación máxima de 5* y ha sido tomado por personas de más de 120 países. El curso fue finalista en del "2018 edX Prize for Exceptional Contributions in Online Teaching and Learning".

¿Alguna vez te preguntaste cómo sería vivir en el mundo de los dinosaurios? ¿Sí? ¡Bueno, ésta es tu oportunidad!

Utilizando el yacimiento fosilífero de Erlian (China) como ejemplo, te llevamos al Desierto del Gobi y a museos e instituciones de diferentes países para mostrarte cómo reconstruimos los ecosistemas de los dinosaurios.

Este curso de biología y ciencias de la vida se centrará en el conocimiento que Podemos obtener al estudiar animales y plantas. Aprenderás acerca de la biología de los dinosaurios, incluyendo su apariencia, clasificación y dieta. Examinaremos en detalle a los mayormente carnívoros dinosaurios terópodos, así como a los más importantes dinosaurios herbívoros, los sauropodomorfos y los ornitisquios. Al finalizar el curso, aprenderás cómo los paleontólogos utilizan el registro fósil y evidencia de animales vivientes para reconstruir a los dinosaurios y a sus ecosistemas.

El curso revive a los dinosaurios con la ayuda del premiado paleoartista Julius T. Csotonyi y está guiado por Dr. Michael Pittman, paleontólogo de vertebrados de la HKU, en colaboración con grandes colegas como el Professor Xu Xing del Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (Beijing, China) y el Dr. Diego Pol del Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio (Trelew, Argentina). También participan del curso una gran cantidad de invitados de diferentes partes del mundo, quienes comparten su conocimiento sobre los dinosaurios.

What you'll learn

  • Dinosaur biology
  • How palaeontologists reconstruct ancient ecosystems using fossil and modern evidence
  • The traits and significance of a Late Cretaceous dinosaur ecosystem
  • 恐龙生物学
  • 古生物学家如何运用化石及现代证据重建远古的生态系统
  • 白垩纪晚期恐龙生态系统的特点
  • Biología de los Dinosaurios
  • Cómo los paleontólogos reconstruyen ecosistemas del pasado utilizando evidencia fósil y del mundo moderno
  • Las características y significancia de un ecosistema del Cretácico Tardío poblado por dinosaurios

Syllabus

Week 1: Course overview and introduction to dinosaurs
Overview of the course, including an introduction to the Late Cretaceous course field site in Erlian, China. Introduction to dinosaur biology from their appearance, classification and diet to their evolution and extinction.

Weeks 2 & 3: Meat eating dinosaurs - theropods
A survey of the theropod dinosaurs discovered in Erlian, including their biology and insights into the preserved ecosystem.

Week 4: Plant eating dinosaurs - sauropodomorph and ornithischian dinosaurs
A survey of Erlian’s herbivores from the dominant hadrosaur ornithischian dinosaurs to rarer sauropodomorph and non-hadrosaur ornithischian dinosaurs. Learn what they tell us about herbivore biology at the time and about the local ecosystem.

Week 5: Living with dinosaurs
A survey of the non-dinosaur reptiles, mammals, fish and invertebrates that lived with the dinosaurs of Erlian. What roles did they play in this ecosystem?

Week 6: Bringing dinosaurs and their ecosystems to life - diet, behaviour and growth and course summary
Find out what evidence palaeontologists use to bring dinosaurs to life in seemingly impossible ways. Also, a summary of the entire course.

1 : 程概述及介
课程概述,介绍位于中国二连浩特白垩纪晚期的考察场地,并从外观、分类和食物以至进化及灭绝方面了解恐龙的生物学。

2 3 : 肉食性恐 -
研究在二连浩特发现的兽脚类恐龙,包括它们的生物学和所在地之生态系统。

4 : 草食性恐 - 蜥脚形 目和 臀目恐
研究二连浩特的草食性动物,从占有主导地位的鸭嘴龙类鸟臀目以至较为罕见的蜥脚形亚目及非鸭嘴龙类鸟臀目恐龙。了解当时草食性动物的生物学和当地 的生态系统。

5 : 共存
研究生活于二连浩特恐龙时期的非恐龙爬行动物、哺乳类、鱼类和无脊椎动物。它们在当时的生态系统中扮演什么样的角色?

6 : 及其生 - 食物、行 及生 长过 程和 总结
了解古生物学家如何运用证据,把恐龙真实的一面带到我们面前以及整个课程的总结。

Semana 1: Síntesis del curso e introducción a los dinosaurios
Síntesis del curso, incluyendo una introducción al yacimiento fosilífero del Cretácico Tardío en Erlian, China. Introducción a la biología de los dinosaurios, desde su apariencia, clasificación y dieta a la evolución y extinción de estas especies.

Semanas 2 & 3: Dinosaurios carnívoros - terópodos
Investigaremos los dinosaurios terópodos descubiertos en Erlian, incluyendo su biología y la información que nos brindan sobre los ecosistemas del pasado.

Semana 4: Dinosaurios herbívoros - sauropodomorfos y ornitisquios
Investigaremos los dinosaurios herbívoros de Erlian, desde los predominantes ornitisquios hadrosaurios a las especies menos abundantes tales como los sauropodomorfos y otros tipos dinosaurios ornitisquios. Aprenderás qué nos cuentan sobre la biología de los herbívoros de esa época y de los ecosistemas locales.

Semana 5: Viviendo con los dinosaurios
Investigaremos los otros reptiles, mamíferos, peces, e invertebrados que vivieron junto a los dinosaurios en Erlian. ¿Qué roles cumplieron en estos ecosistemas?

Semana 6: Reviviendo a los dinosaurios y a sus ecosistemas - dieta, comportamiento y crecimiento. Resumen del curso.
Averiguaremos las asombrosas evidencias que utilizan los paleontólogos para mostrar cómo vivían los dinosaurios. Al finalizar esta semana también realizaremos un resumen de todo el curso.


Watch the video: My Name Is: Dominant (May 2022).