Originally from Asia, more precisely from India and Bangladesh, cholera spread to other continents from 1817.
He arrived in Brazil in the year 1885, invading the states of Amazonas, Bahia, Pará and Rio de Janeiro. In 1893 the disease reached São Paulo, spreading both in the capital and in the interior of the state. However, in the late nineteenth century, the Brazilian government declared the disease eradicated from across the country.
About a century later, in April 1991, cholera arrived in Brazil again. Coming from Peru, he made his first victim in the city of Tabatinga, Amazonas.
Cholera is an infectious disease that attacks the intestines of humans. The bacterium that causes it was discovered by Robert Koch in 1884 and later named after Vibrio cholerae. By infecting the human gut, this bacteria causes the body to flush out a large amount of water and mineral salts, causing serious dehydration. Cholera bacteria can be incubated for one to four days.
When the disease manifests, it has the following symptoms: nausea and vomiting; abdominal cramps; Abundant diarrhea, whitish like rice water, can lead to the loss of up to one liter of water per hour and cramps.
Cholera is mainly transmitted by contaminated water and food. When the vibrium is ingested, it settles in the intestines of man. This bacterium releases a toxic substance that alters the normal functioning of intestinal cells. Then diarrhea and vomiting arise.
Cholera can be fatal if the diagnosis is not rapid and the patient is not treated correctly. Treatment should be done with medical supervision, using antibiotics to fight infection and drugs to fight diarrhea and prevent dehydration. Cholera can be prevented through vaccine and mainly through hygiene and sanitation measures. Vaccination is the responsibility of the government. In the case of cholera, there is no guarantee that all vaccinated people will be immune to the disease. The existing vaccine is estimated to be less than 50% effective.