We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Microbiology covers the scope and sequence requirements for a single-semester microbiology course for non-majors. Microbiology’s art program enhances students’ understanding of concepts through clear and effective illustrations, diagrams, and photographs.
Thumbnail: Campylobacter bacteria are the number-one cause of bacterial food-related gastrointestinal illness in the United States. (Public Domain; De Wood, Pooley from Agricultural Research Service).
2.4 Staining Microscopic Specimens
In their natural state, most of the cells and microorganisms that we observe under the microscope lack color and contrast. This makes it difficult, if not impossible, to detect important cellular structures and their distinguishing characteristics without artificially treating specimens. We have already alluded to certain techniques involving stains and fluorescent dyes, and in this section we will discuss specific techniques for sample preparation in greater detail. Indeed, numerous methods have been developed to identify specific microbes, cellular structures, DNA sequences, or indicators of infection in tissue samples, under the microscope. Here, we will focus on the most clinically relevant techniques.
Bacterial Sepsis, Septic and Toxic Shock
At low concentrations, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) play important roles in the host’s immune defenses. When they circulate systemically in larger amounts, however, the resulting immune response can be life threatening. IL-1 induces vasodilation (widening of blood vessels) and reduces the tight junctions between vascular endothelial cells, leading to widespread edema. As fluids move out of circulation into tissues, blood pressure begins to drop. If left unchecked, the blood pressure can fall below the level necessary to maintain proper kidney and respiratory functions, a condition known as septic shock. In addition, the excessive release of cytokines during the inflammatory response can lead to the formation of blood clots. The loss of blood pressure and occurrence of blood clots can result in multiple organ failure and death.
Bacteria are the most common pathogens associated with the development of sepsis, and septic shock. 1 The most common infection associated with sepsis is bacterial pneumonia (see Bacterial Infections of the Respiratory Tract), accounting for about half of all cases, followed by intra-abdominal infections (Bacterial Infections of the Gastrointestinal Tract) and urinary tract infections (Bacterial Infections of the Urinary System). 2 Infections associated with superficial wounds, animal bites, and indwelling catheters may also lead to sepsis and septic shock.
These initially minor, localized infections can be caused by a wide range of different bacteria, including Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Pseudomonas, Pasteurella, Acinetobacter, and members of the Enterobacteriaceae. However, if left untreated, infections by these gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens can potentially progress to sepsis, shock, and death.
As a group of organisms that are too small to see and best known for being agents of disease and death, microbes are not always appreciated for the numerous supportive and positive contributions they make to the living world. Designed to support a course in microbiology, Microbiology: A Laboratory Experience permits a glimpse into both the good and the bad in the microscopic world. The laboratory experiences are designed to engage and support student interest in microbiology as a topic, field of study, and career. This text provides a series of laboratory exercises compatible with a one-semester undergraduate microbiology or bacteriology course with a three- or four-hour lab period that meets once or twice a week. The design of the lab manual conforms to the American Society for Microbiology curriculum guidelines and takes a ground-up approach — beginning with an introduction to biosafety and containment practices and how to work with biological hazards. From there the course moves to basic but essential microscopy skills, aseptic technique and culture methods, and builds to include more advanced lab techniques. The exercises incorporate a semester-long investigative laboratory project designed to promote the sense of discovery and encourage student engagement. The curriculum is rigorous but manageable for a single semester and incorporates best practices in biology education.
Material Type: Activity/Lab , Textbook
Textbooks and Lecture Slides
- Textbook (OpenStax)*
- Microbiology Textbook (OpenStax)*
“Microbiology covers the scope and sequence requirements for a single-semester microbiology course for non-majors. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications for careers in allied health.” Textbook (OpenStax) Textbook (OpenOregon)
“This open textbook covers the most salient environmental issues, from a biological perspective. The text is designed for an introductory-level college science course. Topics include the fundamentals of ecology, biodiversity, pollution, climate change, food production, and human population growth.” Lecture slides for each chapter.
- Biofundamentals – University of Colorado
A one- (evolving into two) semester introductory course on the evolutionary, molecular, genetic, genomic & systems foundations of modern biology Focuses on experimental support for what we know about cell and molecular biology. Written to serve as the introductory biology course for biology majors with high school chemistry and biology prerequisites as well as for “gateway” cell and molecular biology courses for students with a college-level general biology and general chemistry course background. covers cell biology, genetics, evolution, physiology, disease, nutrition, and ecology. By CK-12, Jean Brainard, Ph.D., and Rachel Henderson, Ph.D.
A dynamic textbook for the two-semester human anatomy and physiology course for life science and allied health majors. The book is organized by body system and covers standard scope and sequence requirements. The web-based version of Anatomy and Physiology also features links to surgical videos, histology, and interactive diagrams. Textbook PDF (Carlos Liachovitzky, CUNY Bronx Community College)
The overall purpose of this preparatory course textbook is to help students familiarize with some terms and some basic concepts they will find later in the Human Anatomy and Physiology I course. The organization and functioning of the human organism generally is discussed in terms of different levels of increasing complexity, from the smallest building blocks to the entire body. This Anatomy and Physiology preparatory course covers the foundations on the chemical level, and a basic introduction to cellular level, organ level, and organ system levels. There is also an introduction to homeostasis at the beginning. Textbook*
Open textbook “designed for the typical introductory biology course for nonmajors, covering standard scope and sequence requirements. The text includes interesting applications and conveys the major themes of biology, with content that is meaningful and easy to understand. The book is designed to demonstrate biology concepts and to promote scientific literacy.” Textbook (OpenStax)*
“Biology 2e is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements of a typical two-semester biology course for science majors. The text provides comprehensive coverage of foundational research and core biology concepts through an evolutionary lens. It includes rich features that engage students in scientific inquiry, highlight careers in the biological sciences, and offer everyday applications. The book also includes various types of practice and homework questions that help students understand—and apply—key concepts.” This updates the earlier edition.
*Lectures slides for OpenStax books can be obtained by signing up as an instructor at Openstax. Some of these lecture slides are also available at OERCommons.
All 33 OpenStax books are also available as PressBooks versions at BCcampus. There are also adapted OpenStax, Boundless (archived by Lumen Learning) and other biology books and anciliaries at LibreTexts.
GALILEO Open Learning Materials
This open lab manual is a remix of Openstax Microbiology, CC-BY 4.0, and created through an Affordable Learning Georgia Round Six Textbook Transformation Grant.
The lab manual was made to be used with the remixed textbook Microbiology for Allied Health Students, and the textbook has a set of Instructional Materials.
This lab manual was created to support a microbiology course for allied health students.
The first section of the manual was adapted from the OpenStax Microbiology textbook, of which a remixed version, Microbiology for Allied Health Students, is used as the text for the course.
The next section, staining methods, encompasses three essential staining procedures used in any microbiology lab.
The manual concludes with descriptions of the major biochemical tests students must perform in order to identify an unknown microorganism. While many traditional lab manuals are lengthy and comprehensive, descriptions of the labs in this manual are kept minimal to encourage students to further research the procedures and results on their own.
The appendix includes a safety contract that each student must sign and submit to the instructor at the beginning of the semester.
This manual was created in partial fulfillment of a grant from the University System of Georgia’s Affordable Learning Georgia Textbook Transformation initiative. Special thanks go to Sara Selby for editing and photography.
Accessible files with optical character recognition (OCR) and auto-tagging provided by the Center for Inclusive Design and Innovation.
GALILEO Open Learning Materials
This open textbook is a remix of Openstax Microbiology, CC-BY 4.0, and created through an Affordable Learning Georgia Round Six Textbook Transformation Grant.
The textbook has the following supplemental materials within this repository:
Microbiology for Allied Health Students is designed to cover the scope and sequence requirements for the single semester Microbiology course for non-majors and allied health students. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications for careers in allied health. The pedagogical features of Microbiology for Allied Health Students make the material interesting and accessible to students while maintaining the career-application focus and scientific rigor inherent in the subject matter.
The scope and sequence of Microbiology for Allied Health Students has been developed and vetted with input from numerous instructors at institutions across the U.S. It is designed to meet the needs of most microbiology courses allied health students.
With these objectives in mind, the content of this textbook has been arranged in a logical progression from fundamental to more advanced concepts. The opening chapters present an overview of the discipline, with individual chapters focusing on cellular biology as well as each of the different types of microorganisms and the various means by which we can control and combat microbial growth. The focus turns to microbial pathogenicity, emphasizing how interactions between microbes and the human immune system contribute to human health and disease. The last several chapters of the text provide a survey of medical microbiology, presenting the characteristics of microbial diseases organized by body system.
Accessible files with optical character recognition (OCR) and auto-tagging provided by the Center for Inclusive Design and Innovation.
Microbe Notes | Microbiology and Biology Notes
Microbe Notes is an educational niche application/website related to microbiology (bacteriology, virology, parasitology, mycology, immunology, etc.) and different branches of biology with an aim to provide study notes to undergraduate and graduate students. This app is also useful for A-level biology, AP biology, IB biology, and other university-level biology and microbiology courses (B.Sc, M.Sc., M.Phil., and Ph.D.).
- 1100+ Study Notes
- Notes Updated Daily
- Free access to all the notes
- Save notes for offline use
- Search Notes
Agricultural Microbiology, Bacteriology, Basic Microbiology, Biochemical Test, Biochemical Test of Bacteria, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biology, Biotechnology, Cancer Biology, Cell Biology, Culture Media, Developmental Biology, Difference Between, Diseases, Environmental Microbiology, Epidemiology, Food Microbiology, Genetics, Human Anatomy and Physiology, Immunology, Infection, Instrumentation, Laboratory Test, Microbiology Pictures, Microscopy, Molecular Biology, Mycology, Parasitology, Pharmacology, Protocols, Report and Guidelines, Research Methodology, Short Answer Questions, Staining, Virology, and Syllabus.
Microbiology Textbook, MCQ & Test Bank
Microbiology covers the scope and sequence requirements for a single-semester microbiology course for non-majors. The book presents the core concepts of microbiology with a focus on applications for careers in allied health. The pedagogical features of the text make the material interesting and accessible while maintaining the career-application focus and scientific rigor inherent in the subject matter. Microbiology’s art program enhances students’ understanding of concepts through clear and effective illustrations, diagrams, and photographs.
* Complete Textbook by OpenStax
* Multiple Choices Questions (MCQ)
* Essay Questions Flash Cards
* Key-Terms Flash Cards
Powered by QuizOver.com the leading online quiz creator
1. An Invisible World
1.1. What Our Ancestors Knew
1.2. A Systematic Approach
1.3. Types of Microorganisms
2. How We See the Invisible World
2.1. The Properties of Light
2.2. Peering Into the Invisible World
2.3. Instruments of Microscopy
2.4. Staining Microscopic Specimens
3. The Cell
3.1. Spontaneous Generation
3.2. Foundations of Modern Cell Theory
3.3. Unique Characteristics of Prokaryotic Cells
3.4. Unique Characteristics of Eukaryotic Cells
4. Prokaryotic Diversity
4.1. Prokaryote Habitats, Relationships, and Microbiomes
4.3. Nonproteobacteria Gram-Negative Bacteria and Phototrophic Bacteria
4.4. Gram-Positive Bacteria
4.5. Deeply Branching Bacteria
5. The Eukaryotes of Microbiology
5.1. Unicellular Eukaryotic Parasites
5.2. Parasitic Helminths
6. Acellular Pathogens
6.2. The Viral Life Cycle
6.3. Isolation, Culture, and Identification of Viruses
6.4. Viroids, Virusoids, and Prions
7. Microbial Biochemistry
7.1. Organic Molecules
7.5. Using Biochemistry to Identify Microorganisms
8. Microbial Metabolism
8.1. Energy, Matter, and Enzymes
8.2. Catabolism of Carbohydrates
8.3. Cellular Respiration
8.5. Catabolism of Lipids and Proteins
8.7. Biogeochemical Cycles
9. Microbial Growth
9.1. How Microbes Grow
9.2. Oxygen Requirements for Microbial Growth
9.3. The Effects of pH on Microbial Growth
9.4. Temperature and Microbial Growth
9.5. Other Environmental Conditions that Affect Growth
9.6. Media Used for Bacterial Growth
10. Biochemistry of the Genome
10.1. Using Microbiology to Discover the Secrets of Life
10.2. Structure and Function of DNA
10.3. Structure and Function of RNA
10.4. Structure and Function of Cellular Genomes
11. Mechanisms of Microbial Genetics
11.1. The Functions of Genetic Material
11.2. DNA Replication
11.3. RNA Transcription
11.4. Protein Synthesis (Translation)
11.6. How Asexual Prokaryotes Achieve Genetic Diversity
11.7. Gene Regulation: Operon Theory
12. Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics
12.1. Microbes and the Tools of Genetic Engineering
12.2. Visualizing and Characterizing DNA, RNA, and Protein
12.3. Whole Genome Methods and Pharmaceutical Applications of Genetic Engineering
12.4. Gene Therapy
13. Control of Microbial Growth
14. Antimicrobial Drugs
15. Microbial Mechanisms of Pathogenicity
16. Disease and Epidemiology
17. Innate Nonspecific Host Defenses
18. Adaptive Specific Host Defenses
19. Diseases of the Immune System
20. Laboratory Analysis of the Immune Response
21. Skin and Eye Infections
22. Respiratory System Infections
23. Urogenital System Infections
24. Digestive System Infections
25. Circulatory and Lymphatic System Infections
26. Nervous System Infections
This course introduces students to microorganisms found in nature, industry and disease. Topics covered include virology, bacteriology, immunology, epidemiology, pathology and other related areas of microbial physiology. The laboratory will deal with the isolation and identification of common pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms utilizing techniques of staining, culturing, fermentation reactions and microscopic inspection. The lab sessions will reinforce and emphasize lecture material. Prerequisite: SCB202 or SCB204 or SCB209. 4 credits 6 hours (3 lecture, 3 lab)
Some of the links require login credentials and can be accessed via MyLaGuardia.