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Are inadvertent environmental catastrophes also examples of natural selection?

Are inadvertent environmental catastrophes also examples of natural selection?



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I just want to understand the concept of natural selection and its relation to evolution.

Evolution by natural selection occurs when we have hereditary trait(s) that causes an effect on reproduction rate of a population, either towards the positive, and thus deemed as beneficial or towards the negative and thus labeled as harmful.

Evolution by natural selection would result in keeping the beneficial trait(s), and wiping out the harmful ones.

The idea according to Darwin is that the slightest harmful effect a hereditary trait(s) would bring to a population then with time it would result in extinction of the population with that trait(s). [On the origin of Species, p.78, chapter: natural selection: "On the other hand we may feel sure that any variation in the least degree injurious would be rigidly destroyed"].

Therefore natural selection could be viewed to result ultimately in washing out of injurious traits, and only promoting beneficial traits. So natural selection can be the cause of extinction of some genotypes, and ultimately of some species.

In this sense natural selection can be considered as a creative natural tool, like a rubber wiping bad intermediate solutions, and only keeping the correct steps, thereby facilitating reaching into a solution.

Now suppose that we have a population of living subjects with varying heritable traits on an Island, and those had equal fitness over a very long period of time, so they were pretty much adaptive to their environment. Now suppose a volcano erupted or a big comet stroked that island that ended all life in it. Lets suppose that the genotypes of that population is not present outside of that Island. So these genotypes became extinct.

Here this event doesn't have the same functional genre that natural selection had, it actually didn't act in a differential manner promoting those genotypes with better fitness and wiping out those with lower fitness. No it actually was NOT fitness dependent at all, it simply squashed all life forms without regards to whatever feature was brought up by the different genotypes, all were simply extinguished.

Now can we label this event of indiscriminative extinction to be the work of natural selection also? Or we just label it as inadvertent environmental factor?

If the latter, then are those inadvertent environmental factors part of the mechanism for evolution?


Let me give another example:

The beetles stochastic example

Suppose we have a population of brown and green beetles, now suppose that we divide the place they live in into two territories A,B, now suppose that the movement of beetles across those territories is random, so at some moment of time all brown beetles happen to be in territory A, other times they have different distribution, and as said the movement pattern is totally random, i.e. there is no significant difference in the pattern of movement of both genotypes of beetles across territory A and B. Now suppose by the act of randomness a moment came where all brown beetles were located at Territory A, while some of the green beetles were in territory A and others in territory B, and suddenly came a big comet and hit territory A at that time that caused all the brown beetles to die, and also caused all green beetles on territory A also to die, but since territory B was not hit, the green beetles in B remained a life.

Now a moment of evolution did occur, since a change in the heritable characteristics of the beetle population did occur. But that change was merely accidental, there was no role attributable to fitness of the green beetles that resulted in their survival, it was a mere random event that caused all of the brown beetles to die. In some sense it's a kind of a stochastic environmental factor that caused that extinction. Fitness of the green beetles didn't have any role in that case of differential survival.

This can be called selection, it is environmental kind of selection, BUT it is NOT the outcome of differential fitness of the genotypes in that environment.

Now this moment in evolution is it described as an event of evolution by natural selection?

More broadly speaking, is it the case that any point of change in the heritable characteristics of a population (i.e. evolution) that is merely due to an environmental factor [like the above example], would qualify as a case of evolution by natural selection? or only those points where the resultant change is attributable to fitness differential that is genotype determined?


Is a change in allele frequency resulting from a catastrophe evolution by natural selection?

The catastrophe itself is an example of a change in environment that brings with it a change in selective pressure. The events you describe (a volcano eruption, or a comet strike) would select for existing variation in the population. Heritable traits that are more common in those surviving the event would have been selected for. This represents natural selection.

Consider the description of natural selection from the UC Berkeley Understanding Evolution Course. We need the following things: variation, differential reproduction, and heredity.

Provided there were some variants that are able to survival, and their survival is the result of some heritable trait, this certainly fits the bill.

What if nothing survived?

This is highly implausible. I'm not aware of any event where this has occurred. Volcanic eruptions are colonized by microorganisms, and the K-T extinction certainly benefited us. If you are focused on, e.g., a specific population that happens to not have enough variation to survive the catastrophe, then that particular population has become extinct. This becomes more plausible the smaller and more homogeneous the population is.

To be honest, I'm not sure if complete loss of a heritable trait that made the population susceptible to the catastrophe (e.g., limited flight range in a bird population that was entirely unable to escape an eruption) would be considered natural selection in the event that the entire population was lost. From a framework of a larger population of birds that included that trait in some birds not on the island in question, I suspect it would, despite the fact that the birds without the trait may not have been exposed to the selective pressure. I would argue that, because there is a decrease in the frequency of a trait in the population due to selection against that trait. Perhaps I should ask a question about it. I welcome any comments or edit suggestions on this point.

Changes that are not due to natural selection

As discussed in a chat with @BryanKruase, changes in allele frequencies that are associated with, but not on the causal pathway to failure to reproduce, would not be considered natural selection. So, selection of birds with a longer flight range, provided that flight range is heritable, would be considered natural selection. If those birds also happened to have more green feathers, an increase in the frequency of that trait would not be due to natural selection. One need not invoke a rapid change in environment (seen from one perspective as a catastrophe) in order to see both types of changes (the trait under selection as well as those associated with that trait). From my perspective, that may have obscured the question. As Bryan pointed out, one should be careful not to overestimate natural selection as the principal cause of evolution.

Your green/brown beetle example would be an example of a change in a heritable trait that is not evolution due to natural selection. Here a random event led to all the brown beetles failing to reproduce, but the brown trait itself was not selected for or against. Speaking of the trait, then, and accepting your hypothetical, we can say that the change in this trait was not due to natural selection.

A few additional comments on your question:

On reading Darwin: I'm glad you're carefully reading Darwin. It's been a while since I've done that. I would recommend you not get too caught up in whether something fits with his description. That was the state of things 160 years ago.

On an "inadvertent catastrophe": this phrase is a little confusing. Your examples are natural phenomena. I'm not sure you mean to distinguish your examples from purposeful changes, e.g., for an experiment.

On changes "merely due to an environmental factor": selective pressures in natural selection are always due to an environmental factor of some sort or another.


The idea according to Darwin is that the slightest harmful effect a hereditary trait(s) would bring to a population then with time it would result in extinction of the population with that trait(s).

Citation? I certainly don't think any modern biologist would claim that a single deleterious allele will doom a population.

Therefore natural selection could be viewed to result ultimately in washing out of injurious traits,

In real life, there is no infinity far away "ultimate" point to be reached. What's deleterious today might be beneficial if the environment changes. And the environment is always changing.

Now can we label this event of indiscriminative extinction to be the work of natural selection also?

I don't see why you would, since survival was not influenced by genetics.

If the latter, then are those inadvertent environmental factors part of the mechanism for evolution?

Well, if it kills every single organism, I don't think we can say that population is evolving any more. But bottlenecks randomly and radically changing allele frequencies are hardly an unknown mechanism for evolution.


Natural selection is an important part of evolution, but not the only part

Evolution is described as changes in heritable characteristics over time: you can look at changes in allele frequencies and call that evolution.

Genetic drift, for example, describes genetic changes that are caused by random sampling rather than selection. A natural disaster (if we assume it acts only to kill off some individuals, rather than changing the environment), could hypothetically contribute to genetic drift.

Consider some population of a species of birds on a group of islands. The birds can fly between islands, so they interbreed but not at the same rate (i.e., they are more likely to breed within their island than between islands). Therefore, if we look at allele frequencies, they are not identical. They will be especially likely to drift apart if they aren't especially important to survival (an example in humans could be something like eye color).

One day, all the birds on one of the islands die by some disaster. If we look at allele frequencies across the whole population across all the islands, those frequencies just suddenly changed: any alleles that were more common in the doomed island were just reduced. Evolution just happened (heritable characteristics just changed), with no selection.

These effectively random changes can be quite important evolutionary forces over the long run, especially when population bottlenecks occur, in which case a small population survives rather than is wiped out.


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Lots of traits

The study found 13 traits in women and 10 traits in men that were linked to having more children and had a genetic component. Those included having:

  • Their first child at a younger age.
  • A higher body mass index.
  • Fewer years of education.
  • Lower fluid intelligence, which is the capacity to solve problems that require logic and reasoning.

The researchers noted that some of those traits were linked — for example, people who had their first child at a younger age tended to have fewer years of education. But interestingly, among women who had their first child when they were older, those with more education had more children.

While it might be surprising that people heavier relative to their height are having more children, their body mass index was measured after they already had children, and Sanjak notes that it's not clear whether having kids itself causes a higher body mass index or whether having a higher body mass index helps increase the number of children you have.

Just because some traits are linked to more children and have a genetic component doesn't mean they'll cause changes in the population over time either. Men had more children if they were taller, while women had more children if they were shorter, but because height genes affect men and women the same way, those two types of selection should cancel each other out, Sanjak says.


Natural experiments as quasi experiments

Because natural experiments do not randomize participants into exposure groups, the assumptions and analytical techniques customarily applied to experimental designs are not valid for them. Rather, natural experiments are quasi experiments and must be thought about and analyzed as such. The lack of random assignment means multiple threats to causal inference, including attrition, history, testing, regression, instrumentation, and maturation, may influence observed study outcomes. For this reason, natural experiments will never unequivocally determine causation in a given situation. Nevertheless, they are a useful method for researchers, and if used with care they can provide additional data that may help with a research question and that may not be obtainable in any other way.


3. Temperate Forest Ecosystems

Temperate forest ecosystems are common in regions where winters are cold and summers are warm. The ecosystems normally comprise deciduous trees, which shed their leaves every autumn, and coniferous trees that remain green all year round.

You should realize that in many regions the original temperate forest ecosystems have been altered by human activities, giving way to farming. However, one important temperate forest ecosystem, the Great Smoky Mountains, is a protected area and has been labelled a World Biosphere Reserve.

25 percent of the remaining major temperate forests are located on the British Columbia coast of Canada. You can find the other remnants in eastern U.S., Europe, Australia, New Zealand, southwest South America, Japan, and China. Some common naturally-occurring plants in temperate forests include apples, chestnuts, maple sugar, and mushrooms.


Give few examples of man-made environment.

The word man-made is self-explanatory. A Human-made or a Man-made environment is referred to as the surroundings made by humans to provide facilities for satisfying human needs. These surroundings are made to have a place for people to do jobs or live or even educate other people and also recreating requirements for the concerned people&rsquos day to day needs.

A greenhouse is an example of a man-made environment used to grow plants. Ski Dubai is another example. It is a ski resort in a desert and it has snow too! The Singapore Zoo is another example of a man-made environment.

The use of technology, concepts are seen in a physical environment which is directly influencing during the making of a man-made environment.

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नास्ति उद्यंसमो बन्धुः कृत्वा यं नावसीदति ||"

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Intelligent design and special pleading

All too often I hear from people that there is proof of god everywhere. The trees and the birds, our hands and our feet, the flesh-eating bacteria and the natural disasters that destroy cities. OK, those lasts two are not generally used to argue in favor of a loving god, but they are pretty complex, aren’t they?

And that’s the key here: complexity. How could all of these things with their complex parts, elaborate interactions with the rest of nature, and our intricate brains that can think about it all just get here by chance? They could not have done it on their own, right? So there must have been some intelligence, some designer, to give the world it’s complexity.

It is unfortunate that there is such a deficiency of understanding of science and of critical thinking in our culture. Science education may be partially to blame, but we must be willing to take the responsibility for ourselves as well. And as a result of this there is a severe lack of understanding of the theory of natural selection (as well as the other evolutionary pressures) and thus a misunderstanding of the fact of evolution as they intersect with these questions of complexity.

There are great resources for learning about these things online, and so any person can go and find out what scientists say about evolution. The key here is to understand that the process does not claim chaos or complete randomness. The question about evolution is not a false dichotomy between an intelligent designer or random chance. There are many believers in various gods that accept the fact of evolution (Ken Miller and Francis Collins being two prominent examples). Natural selection is a definite process, is not random, and is well supported by physical evidence.

The major component of randomness in evolution is the mutation of genes. But most of these mutations have no effect at all, and only sometimes do they have a harmful or helpful effect. It takes environmental factors, lots of time, and other factors to make a mutation effect the population at large. And it is the process of natural selection that does the actual work, not the random mutation.

But my point here is not to explain natural selection or to spell out the evidence for evolution. That is the responsibility of each person to do on their own in conjunction with schools and museums. Start with the link above, a trip to the museum, or even a recent biology textbook (and not one produced by the Discovery Institute such as Of Pandas and People, as they have been shown to be untrustworthy during the Kitzmiller case).

And so what about this claim that complexity requires intelligent design? Well, even if we didn’t have a good scientific answer to the claim (which we do), there is another problem with it that can be shown without knowing anything about evolution.

Here is the argument as I have seen it:

  • The world (universe) is full of complex things
  • complex things need designers
  • therefore, a designer of the world (universe) exists.

Ray Comfort is known for arguing that if you see a painting we know there is a painter, if their is a building there is a builder, etc. It is certainly true that things we create have designers, and they certainly are intelligent. But the analogy does not carry through to all things because not all things are constructed in a factory. Other things reproduce biologically and are put together by very complex natural processes that we, admittedly, don’t fully understand. And as far as universes go, I’ve never seen one made, so while I can go to the car factory, I can’t go to the universe factory.

But more importantly is the assumption that all things need intelligent designers to exist simply because they are complex. We know that simple things can become complex through natural selection, but even if we don’t know this we can ask if all things that are complex need a designer, then wouldn’t the designer itself, being a complex thing, need its own designer?

In short, what created god?

Now, the common reply is to state that god is eternal and has always existed. This is special pleading. What that means is that the point is making a special exception of the rules for illegitimate reasons. The question here is whether a god exists, and so in deciding this issue one cannot take as given a special exception for the thing that is in question. One cannot simply define god into existence by saying that it is not subject to the rule that all complex things need a creator. If one did, the results would be somewhat silly.

The bottom line for intelligent design, and whatever people are trying to disguise creationism as these days, is that there is no evidence to support it. Despite Michael Behe’s best attempts, there is no irreducibly complex thing that cannot be explained without the need of an intelligent designer. Natural selection is sufficient to explain complexity in our biological world.

And further, even if it could be shown that an intelligent designer would be necessary, this would still be a far cry from associating this intelligence with any particular god. An intelligent designer would not imply that it had anything to do with any theology or mythology (as if there were a difference) of any religion. A Christian does not win any points for his beliefs even if intelligent design were true. Because if it were true, the Moslem, Jew, Hindu, etc would step up and claim that it is their god that is the intelligent designer.

Luckily for us, that is not an issue because the proposal of an intelligent designer does not stand up to scrutiny. The irony, perhaps, is that intelligent design needs people of lesser intelligence, or at least understanding, to propose it.

If complexity needs a creator, so does the complex creator. God is nothing but a pseudo-answer to a non-problem when it comes to the complexities of the world and how to explain them.

Related: Counter to the Kalam Cosmological Argument. A favorite of William Lane Craig, Christian apologist.


Freshman Biology

- Go to resources below and take a look at "elements in a smartphone" and "the periodic table".

- Chemistry intro. You can't see this stuff. It's too small. We try to use models to get some ideas about how these things work.

-Bowling balls and BB's. parts of an atom.

Thursday. 8/13/2020 ELEMENTS

- Housekeeping . book covers, enroll in moodle. Password is "water1"

- "Bob Ross". Read aloud pages 35 -36 Create mind map

- Assign: Read pages 37-39. Create mind map

- Compare and contrast copper and dry ice

- numbers: atomic number, atomic weight

Friday. 8/14/2020 ELEMENTS OF LIFE

- check concept maps pages 37-39

- Start working your way through the resource list.

- practice 2.1 atoms and isotopes

THE DAILY - week 2

- Monday. August 17, 2020 WATER

- Floating paper clips and drops on a penny

- Record on the board the maximum number of drops on the penny. Find the class average.

- Discuss. Polar covalent bonds and hydrogen bonding

- Go to the resource list. Watch "water molecule close up."

- Go to the practice list. Do 2.2 practice water and hydrogen bonding

- Assign: mind map pages 40-41

Tuesday. August 18, 2020. ACIDS AND BASES

- finish vids and practice on water

- pH testing. Find the pH of 10 samples around the room. List in your notebook.

- Acids and bases defined and examples

Wednesday. August 19, 2020 ACIDS AND BASES (CONT)

- Go to assessments. Take quiz on water

- Watch: "pH of 10 common household liquids"

- Summarize acids and bases

acids and bases in the body . gut, blood, skin

- Go to assessments. Take quiz on acids and bases

- Quiz Friday. 2.2. water, acids, bases

Thursday. August 20, 2020 HYDROCARBONS AND CARBOHYDRATES

- review practice quiz on water

- go to assessments: quiz water acids and bases

- "Corn on the cob". Why is sweet corn sweet?

- What do you put on the corn on the cob when you eat it?

- Quiz tomorrow. 2.2 water acids and bases

Friday August 21, 2020. CARBS (CONTINUED)

- Quiz 2.2. water , acids and bases,

- How much sugar is in a Starbucks peppermint caramel frappuccino? Mountain Dew? Your choice?

THE DAILY . WEEK 3

Monday. August 24, 2020 FOOD

- Search: "You are what you eat."

- Watch: You are what you eat.

Tuesday August 25, 2020. LIPIDS

- Check the food charts . largest nutrient? smallest nutrient?

Wednesday. August. 26, 2020. PROTEINS

- Yesterday's lipid quiz. Common mistake . saturated and unsaturated fat.

- Build one amino acid. Alanine or serine.

- assign: test Friday 2.1. 2.2. 2.3

- Corona virus. . crown . spikes . __________________________

- Find the rapid fire links above. Number 1-10 on a piece of paper and start rapid fire 1. Continue through all 5 rapid fire activities.

Chemistry

Indiana state standard B.1.1. Compare and contrast the shape and function of the essential biological macromolecules (i.e. carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids), as well as, how chemical elements (i.e. carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur) can combine to form these molecules.

elements and compounds

protons and electrons

numbers . atomic number and atomic weight

covalent bonds and ionic bonds

covalent bonds and hydrogen bonds

polar covalent bonds and nonpolar covalent bonds

mass of subatomic particles . big, big, small

charge of subatomic particles . positive, negative, and neutral

carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids

Do we use these same elements to build the molecules found in our bodies? i.e. C,H,O,N,P S?

Chemical reactions and enzymes

- reactants and products

- enzymes and substrates

- enzymes and active sites

Monday. August 31, 2020. chemical reactions . intro and examples

- alcohol explosion and alcohol evaporation

- reactants and products . more examples

- energy and the chemical reactions

- Watch: Kahn academy "chemical reactions"

- assign: read pages 49-50. prepare a mind map in your notebook

Tuesday, September 1, 2020. catalysts

- warm up . Hindenburg disaster

- Looking ahead - quiz 2.4. Friday

- Review the alcohol explosion reaction

- Lab: Liver and hydrogen peroxide

- record your data in your notebook

Wednesday. September 2,, 2020. enzymes

- Quiz Friday . 2.4. chemical reactions and enzymes

2 test tubes. One with a piece of liver and one with about a 1/4 test tube of hydrogen peroxide. Put your pair of test tubes either in the bucket of ice or in the warm water bath.

- warm up . Hindenburg . What happened?

- alcohol explosion . What happened?

- Liver and hydrogen peroxide . What happened?

- Instructor will give you a group. When you are ready one pair of students mixes the hydrogen peroxide and liver from the ice while a second pair of students mixes the hydrogen peroxide and liver from the warm water bath.

- Observations. Discussion. Applications.

- Assign: Watch vid of enzymes

Thursday. September 3, 2020. Conditions effecting enzyme activity

- practice quiz. 2.4 chemical reactions and enzymes

- What condition effected enzyme activity yesterday? How?

- Enzyme: catalase. substrate: hydrogen peroxide

- with your partner . 4 test tubes. 2 with liver , 2 with hydrogen peroxide.

- Check the pH of the solutions in beakers A and B

- Add 10 drops from beaker A to a test tube with liver. Add 10 drops from beaker B to a test tube with liver.

- Add hydrogen peroxide to the test tubes with liver. How fast did the reaction go?

- Observations, discussion, conclusions, applications

Friday September 4, 2020. The graph/Activation energy

- Repeat yesterday's lab using drops from beakers A and B. Record your results in a T chart.

The Daily - week 5. September 7-11, 2020

Tuesday. September 8, 2020. summary and lab

- Your next quiz is Thursday over enzymes. It will involve some writing. Make sure you have read 2.4, especially the section on enzymes.

- All living things . dogs and cats and worms and trees and you have a lot in common. You are all made of the same set of molecules - carbs, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA). These things are assembled and taken apart in chemical reactions. There is a barrier that keeps these reactions from happening spontaneously . That barrier is called activation energy. How do dogs and cats and trees and worms and you overcome this barrier?

- We worked with an enzyme last week called catalase.

- Review what we know about enzymes .

- exit ticket - writing prompt

Wednesday. September 9, 2020. Enzyme review (the graph) and finish digestion lab.

- Quiz tomorrow. 2.4. Enzymes. Make sure you know and understand the graph we have been using this week.

- Practice quiz. Take the quiz, 10 questions, in the link below.

- Discuss the prelab questions on the handout.

- Finish the digestion lab. Turn in data.

Thursday. September 10, 2020. Quiz. Post lab.

- Post lab. Review the data, Review the questions.

- Review your quiz. Check the red and green boxes.

- Post lab. Review and summarize.

We used an indicator in the lab called Benedict's solution that turns orange when sugar is present. Think back to tubes 7 and 8 in this week's lab. In tube 7 we put starch, amylase, and Benedict's solution. In tube 8 we put glucose and Benedict's solution. Tube 8 turned orange we would expect because we put sugar in the tube. But we found tube 7 also turned orange. Explain this result including the role enzymes play in the reaction.

The Daily. week 6. September 14-18, 2020

Monday, September 14, 2020. Ecosystems

- Expect a quiz on Friday on chapter 3. Ecosystems

- Housekeeping - grades, missing work, Friday's writing prompt

- Observations . lettuce and Bromothymol blue

- It's not just us and our reactions and enzymes . it's us and the plants. Living together with a lot of other stuff. we biologists like to call that ecosystems.

- Read: ecosystems linked below

- Watch: Ecosystems episode 1

- In your notebook make a list of ecosystems found in Indiana.

Tuesday. September 15, 2020 Can you live without an ecosystem?

- Watch Martian trailer linked below.

- What's missing on planet Mars?

- What must Matt Damon do to survive?

- Watch Martian clip below - "Creating water"

- Back to earth. We have these areas called ecosystems. Pretty amazing. Energy is captured. Nutrients are cycled through. Waste is broken down. Food grows. All the plants and animals manage to live together.

- We're all living in an ecosystem. Ecosystems in Indiana are different than ecosystems in Florida. Why?

- What other factors determine what kind of ecosystem we are in?

- What happens when our ecosystem breaks down? Hurricanes, floods, fires.

- Watch California fires linked below.

- Watch California fires in pictures linked below.

1. Use the link below "How much hotter is your hometown then when you were born?

2. What is "fire suppression"?

3. Lots of dead trees and brush and debris that is very dry.

4. More hot days. Climate change

8. People building houses in wooded areas.

9. Bark beetles killing trees.

Wednesday September 16, 2020. Local ecosystems

- Quiz Friday. Ecosystems. Make sure you know the difference between a population, community, and an ecosystem. And review what we have been working on in class this week.

- Review . yesterday. the "missing ecosystem". Where? __________________. Discuss

- Review . yesterday . the "damaged ecosystem". Where? Why?

- Today . Local ecosystem challenges. CSO. Kayaking on the rivers.

- Use google earth (linked below) to calculate how much rain comes off the roof of the gym during a one inch rain storm.

- If time permits field trip to the rain garden.

Thursday. September 17, 2020. very local ecosystem . rain garden

- Field trip . to the rain garden

- Vids. Watch "wonderful wetlands" and "eagle marsh wetlands".

- Summarize local wetlands. What are they and why are they important?

Friday, September 18, 2020. Assessment, Seed planting

- Plantings. Regular soil and composted soil. Radish seeds.

- You eat the radish. Rabbit eats the radish. You eat the rabbit. ---> ______________

- Let' s work on our mind maps. pages 67-69

- What gets passed along the food chain?

The Daily. week 7. September 21-25, 2020

Monday. September 21, 2020. Food web jenga

- check mind maps 3.2. Energy flow

- Water the plants. Collect data.

- Questions - Producer or consumer? Explain. These radish plants are the beginning or end of the food chain? What might be the next step? What do you have when you put a bunch of food chains together? _______________________

- What's different about the two kinds of soil?

- If these plants were outside what ecosystem , food chain, or food web would they be found in?

- Search food chains and food webs.

Tuesday. September 22, 2020. Food webs (cont)

- zoom link invitation. 6th period

- zoom link invitation. 7th period

- Water the plants and collect data. Copy data table into your composition book.

- Discuss . hypothesis, independent variable, dependent variable

- Review "Food web jenga" and wolves in Yellowstone

- Discuss Indiana food web linked below. Sketch in notebook.

Jenga . What might be a key piece in this food web that would upset the whole balance of things in the ecosystem?

- Watch "Moose at Isle Royale"

Wednesday. September 23, 2020. Energy flow through the food web

- Collect and record data on the radish plants.

- Energy pyramids, trophic levels, and the 10% rule.

- zoom link for 6th period class. password 179225

- zoom link for 7th period class. password 179225

- Assign: Watch "Energy flow in ecosystems"

Thursday September 24, 2020. Water cycle

- zoom link 6th period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

zoom link 7th period : https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Collect and record radish data.

- Looking ahead: Our next test will be over chapter 3 next Tuesday, September 29, 2020

- radish ----> rabbit ----> human. What is passed along this food chain?

- Why is an energy diagram a pyramid and not a rectangular solid?

- Follow the water you have been adding to your plant.

- Assign: Mind map 3.3. pages 74-75

- Let's move our test next week back to Wednesday.

- zoom link 6th period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link 7th period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Check mind map 3.3 - Reminder we have a test next Wednesday over chapter 3. ecosystems, food webs and food chains, energy flow through the ecosystem, cycles.

- collect radish plant data

- practice quiz water cycle and carbon cycle

- Water issues - drought and aquifiers

- Assign: mind map p. 78 The nitrogen cycle.

The Daily week 8. September 28- October 2, 2020

We are planning a test later this week. Earliest is Wed, latest is Friday. Chapter 3. Ecology. Make sure you look through your moodle pages every day to keep up with assignments and what things will be on the test.

Big ideas are ecosystems, food webs and food chains, energy pyramids, and cycle of matter.

Monday. September 28, 2020 N cycle

zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- We watered these plants every day. Review the water cycle including ground water and aquifer.

- What gas passed from us in the room to the plants? ______

- Why did the plants grown in composted soil seem to grow better?

- Where did the nutrients come from?

- Review the nitrogen cycle.

- Watch: biogeochemical cycle (Bozeman)

Tuesday. September 29, 2020. Algae blooms, limiting nutrient

- Test on chapter 3 is tomorrow, Wednesday, September 30.

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

Wednesday. September 30, 2020 test chapter 3. ecosystems

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- test return. Check #48. Let me know if you got one of the correct answers but was counted wrong.

ECOLOGY

Selected topics in chapters 3,4,5,6 including food chains and food webs, trophic levels, 10% rule, energy pyramids, C,N,water cycles, algae blooms.

The Daily week 8. September 28 - October 2, 2020

Thursday, October 1, 2020. Spring break in London

1. Scenario: You are part of a group of students heading to London England for spring break. What to bring? What to wear? One way to start answering this question would be to find the latitude for London England then find a city in North America with similar latitude. Put these two pieces of info in the moodle assignment link below. Assuming the climate is pretty similar along this latitude line as both cities are the same distance from the equator what kind of weather should you prepare for? Add this to your moodle assignment.

2. Next find the average temperature and rainfall in London, England for early April. Is this what you expected from your latitude data? Is it warmer than expected? cooler? about what you expected?

3. What other factors could be influencing the climate in London?

4. Find the Gulf Stream current in the Atlantic Ocean. Trace the flow of this current .. north? south? east? west?. Is it a warm or cold current? What difference would that make?

5. Besides latitude, ocean currents and air flow, what other factors might influence the climate in London? What altitude is London? What difference would this make?

6. Write a story about you and your friends spending a day in London. What would you want to see and do? Where would you go in the city? Imagine yourself riding trains and double decker buses to get around the city.

- Put all of the above in the moodle link below.

- Watch "weather vs climate" linked below

- There is a greenhouse effect simulation linked below. Find it. Note the key that tells you what the different colored circles represent. You can change some of the variables. You can look at different time periods, concentration of different greenhouse gases, etc. Note where the red circles go when released from the surface. Do they all float away? Do some bounce back? Does this change with different amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere?

- Watch: The Greenhouse effect (Bozeman)

- Read: "The oceans are getting warmer". This is a short article that includes a graph. Look at the graph and answer 3 questions in the moodle link below.

- Make some observations about the graph. Be specific.

- Does your noticing prompt any questions or ideas about what is going on. List a couple things you wonder about after studying the graph.

3. Come up with a catchy headline. What story could this graph tell. Can you create a headline that would make people want to read the story?

The Daily. week 9. October 5-9, 2020

Monday, October 5, 2020. climate

- Housekeeping, Powerschool, make up

- Review . spring break in London . climate

- factors that effect climate

- Review "The oceans are getting warmer"

- Read "2020 has been a record year in the Atlantic" linked below

- Rain garden . what's the problem with ragweed?

- What factors determine what is living in the rain garden ecosystem?

Tuesday, October 6, 2020. Greenhouse effect, latitude, currents

- demo - thermometers on cardboard

- demo - covered and uncovered boxes

- observations: Find the temperatures of the demos set up and record in your notebook.

- cardboard stand up (direct): ___________

- cardboard flat on counter (indirect): ________

- Field trip: "Let's go get some ragweed". Why?

- Find an example of each of the following in our rain garden and put in your notebook.

- Assign: Mind map 4.2 pages 90-93

Wednesday, October 7, 2020. symbiosis

https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- This is the last week of the quarter. Try to keep up finishing assignments and avoiding zeros in powerschool.

- Check in on moodle every day. All assignments and classroom work is posted here.

- practice quiz - community interactions

- watch vids: There are 4 short videos posted below. Two on symbiosis and two on niche. Get your earbuds or headphones out and start down the list.

- California fires. What happens to all these burned out areas?

- Read Wildfire , post wildfire succession. Question . where do the new plants come from? What kind of new plants will be there? Will it ever get back to normal?

Thursday. October 8, 2020. Biomes

- 6th period zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- 7th period zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Test chapter 4 next Tuesday!

- Intro: Biomes (vid linked below)

- Warm up: On the graph locate each of the following biomes-

tropical rainforest, desert, tundra, temperate forest, coniferous forest, taiga, grassland. Write the name of the biome on the graph where it fits with the temp and rainfall found in that biome. List a couple plants and animals found in the biome.

- Prepare 10 pic power point on the biome we are living in or a biome you would like to live in. Make sure to include info on temperature, rainfall, plants, animals living in the biome.

Popcorn presentations . we will call on people randomly to put their power point on the big screen.

Friday, October 9, 2020. Biomes (cont)

- zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- You did a good job yesterday of identifying different biomes. You don't need to know every detail that is in the text book but should know the difference between the desert and the rainforest. Each biome differs in abiotic factors, temperature and rainfall, as well as biotic factors, what plants and animals live there. As in the video intro yesterday biome is a biology name for the beautiful places on earth found in God's good creation. We should enjoy, appreciate , and take of these areas.

- In addition, know what biome you live in. Biomes are a lot bigger than ecosystems. In fact there are a lot of different ecosystems in a biome.

- We'll work on the power point project today. Popcorn the presentations.

- End with some Planet earth video.

- For Monday read 4.4, aquatic ecosystems. We have a test scheduled for Tuesday over chapter 4.

The Daily. week 10. October 12-16, 2020

Monday, October 12, 2020

- zoom link 6th period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- The test this week has been moved to Wednesday, October 12, 2020

- pic from the weekend . What do you see? What do you wonder? Catchy headline

- Watch: ecological succession. Mt. St. Helens

- We finished last week looking at "the beautiful places on earth" . in biology we call these Biomes. Let's see a few more presentations and then summarize what we know about biomes.

- Aquatic ecosystems. Let's review wetlands since they are most relevant to where we live.

Tuesday. October 13, 2020. Estuaries

- Ecology test practice

- zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Explore and search "Estuaries". 8 minutes

- What are they? Where are they? Why are they important?

- Watch: "Let's talk about estuaries"

- Question: "As a Christian would you volunteer for this project?"

- The Estuary -------> Fisheries and Recreation

- Test tomorrow, Wednesday, October 14, 2020. Chapter 4

Wednesday, October 14, 2020. TEST ch. 4

- Test. chapter 4 Biomes, ecosystems, aquatic ecosystems.

Thursday. October 15, 2020. Populations

- Finish biome pic presentations

- numbers - accidents, $, deaths

- trends . are these numbers going up, down , or staying the same?

- Causes . are there too many deer?

- Population - defined, examples, growth

Friday October 16, 2020. Population growth

- Go to the population growth simulation below. Play around with that a bit changing some of the variables with the slide scales on the left side of the page. Note the graph changes.

- Let's look at the simulation together.

- Summarize exponential and logistic growth.

- Vid: exponential and logistic growth

- What is a population? What determines how big the population gets? Why is this important?

The Daily. week 11. October 19-23, 2020

Monday. October 19, 2020. Population growth. Population decline - cod

- Review: population density . Alaska and Brooklyn

- Population distribution .. clumped, random, uniform . Cornfield? Schools of fish? Wolf packs? Dandelions in a field?

- Finish the fruit fly graph p. 123.

- Beans. Start with 2 beans in the corner of your desk. Double your population 7 times. Put each new population on a card on your desk.

- When does this happen in nature?

- What kind of growth is this?

- Can it go the other way? . story of cod .

Tuesday. October 20, 2020 predator prey effect on populations

- Moose - Wolf graph. Isle Royale.

- What can effect population numbers besides food sources and other resources?

Wednesday. October 21, 2020 Sustainability

- Warm up . "worldometer". Open the link below and make an observation or two.

- Quiz tomorrow 6.1. Read and organize and recall.

- Hunter gatherer ----> Amish ----> Modern agriculture

- Planet Money makes a T shirt . 5 small snippets showing T shirt production from the cotton field to the mall.

- Meet Eileen Fisher. See link below.

- zoom sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- So now what? Nearly 8 billion people on the planet. Increased demands for food, water, and space. Increased demands on waste removal systems. Lot of different challenges. What can we do?

- Building a house. LEED. List these in your notebook.

The Daily. week 12 October 26-30,2020

Monday. October 26, 2020. Fall break

Tuesday, October 27, 2020. Fall break

Wednesday. October 28, 2020. Sustainability

- zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Review sustainability. running a marathon. How does establishing a pace in a marathon race (26 miles) look like an example of sustainability?

- Ogallala aquifer, landfill, CSO into rivers, algae blooms in Lake Erie, Clothing, cod population, etc. How sustainable are our practices?

- Football games, stadiums, buildings, houses

- JIgsaw project (quiz grade)

2. Eileen Fisher, sustainable fashion

- Take practice quiz 6.1 A changing landscape

Thursday October 29, 2020. Renewable energy

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Looking ahead ----->. Our next test will be late next week over chapter 6.

- Finish jigsaw. sustainability issues

- Renewable energy . examples, discussion

- Watch "Blue Creek wind farm"

- "Sticky time" . Collect data on Blue Creek or other wind farms. Get it on a sticky note and onto the poster.

- zoom sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Finish "Sticky time" . Blue creek wind farm

- Reminder we have a test late next week on chapter 6

- There are a number of short videos listed below related to sustainable management of land, forest, and fish. Let's watch these and list a few takeaways after each one.

- Assign: Finish reading 6.2, managing air and water resources.

The Daily. week 13. November 2-6, 2020

Monday. November 2, 2020. Biodiversity

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Reminder we have a test Friday over chapter 6. Start your preparation for that test by tracking our progress on the moodle page. Next is your composition book you keep with notes and mind maps and graphs and data. The last step is your textbook. Try to do something each day to reinforce and solidify what was covered that day in class.

- Sustainability . you can't sprint the marathon. What does this have to do with resources we are using and managing on planet earth?

- Land, forest, fish, air, water

- renewable energy . Blue Creek wind farm

- Intro to Biodiversity . Saturday morning in my back yard.

- Prepare a power point with 10 pics representing one of the groups above.

- Assign: Mind map 6.3. pages 150-153

Tuesday, November 3, 2020 Value and threats to biodiversity

- zoom link 7th period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Discuss - value and threats

- survival. What to do if injured on a hike far from help?

- rapid fire . 5 more power points

- What's in your fish sandwich? . the mercury problem

- Activity . "pennies" (mercury) up the food chain

- Watch "Destruction of the buffalo herd"

- 5 minute search on one of the above

- Assign: finish reading 6.3 (No mind map required)

Wednesday, November 4, 2020 Ozone

- zoom link 7th period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Open note quiz. 6.3. Biodiversity

- We didn't get to the search yesterday listed above. Do a 5 minute search (words, pics, vids) on one of the invasive species listed above.

- We're almost done with our environmental issues. Reminder that we have a test on Friday over chapter 6.

- 1 minute search . melanoma

- 1 minute search . sunscreen

- 1 minute search . Freon, CFC

- zoom link. seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Review the quiz yesterday. Biodiversity mind map.

- Review ozone. If Freon continues to be used ozone could get broken down. What difference would that make?

- Review the box activity . open and covered. This activity was about __________________. What difference would that make?

- Watch: Can we save ash trees from the emerald ash borer?

You may use your composition book to help you answer the following 2 questions. Writing mechanics counts.

1. Why is biodiversity a good thing? Discuss. Include specific examples.

2. What are threats to biodiversity? Discuss. Include specific examples.

Cell structure and function

The Daily. week 14. November 9-13, 2020

Monday. November 9, 2020. Cheek cells

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link. seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Review Friday's intro to cells . cancer .

- Cheek cells .. Observe . sketch

Tuesday. November 10, 2020. Organelles

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- 20 pics .. "scopes and cells"

- "parts and pieces". aka organelles

rough endoplasmic reticulum

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

- assign: finish organelle puzzle

Wednesday. November 11, 2020

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- check the organelle puzzle

- List the "top ten" organelles in your notebook

- Discuss functions of each

- Assign: Quiz thursday 7.2. organelles

Thursday. November 12, 2020

-zoom link: sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link: seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Take the practice quiz. The real quiz is tomorrow. Check the red and green boxes.

- 10 minute reading time. Go to "How stuff works". Plug in the search box the name of one of the top ten organelles we looked at yesterday. Read all about it. Repeat for as many organelles as you can do in 10 minutes.

- What happens when one of these organelles is not working?

- Tomorrow. Quiz 7.2. organelles

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

The Daily. week 15. November 16-20, 2020

Monday. November 16, 2020 Diffusion

- sixth period zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- seventh period zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- This week. Test chapter 7 on Friday. Most of this test will be over 7.1, 7.2, 7.3.

- Good job on the organelle quiz on Friday!

- Review the pond water from Friday.

- Drops of food coloring in beakers of water. Observe. Discuss.

- Lab: starch and sugar in the dialysis bag. Iodine and water in the beaker. Put the bag in the beaker. Wait 10 minutes. Observations. Discussion.

- Assign: Outline 7.3 pages 182-184

Tuesday. November 17, 2020. Osmosis

- zoom link sixth period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- zoom link seventh period: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- check outlines 7.3 pages 182-184

-Assign: outline 7.3 pages 185-187

Wednesday. November 18, 2020

- sixth period recurring zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- seventh period recurring zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/5700940761?pwd=eGxjekc2OExYYjROb3ZnbUdSaUVmUT09

- Check the Karo bags from yesterday. Observations.

- "Smelly balloons" . Observe, Discuss, Sketch

- Test on Friday over 7.1. 7.2. 7.3

Thursday. November 19, 2020

- Zoom links are at the top of the Biology moodle page, not the daily page but way up at the beginning of the page. On the left hand side I believe. If you have trouble finding those email me please. I know the zoom option has been confusing this week and probably not all that productive. Maybe we need to schedule another time with people on quarantine so we don't have two things going on at the same time. If you want to do that maybe today at 3 would be an option.

- Test tomorrow over 7.1. 7.2. 7.3

- 7.1 takes us back to development of microscopes from Hooke through Leeuwenhoek to today's electron microscopes. Make sure you know the difference between a prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. 7.2 was our focus last week, organelles. Bodies have organs, cells have organelles. We listed a "top ten" and did some work with those identifying them in cell diagrams and getting familiar with function of each. There will be a lot of questions on those tomorrow. And then 7.3 looking at how molecules and nutrients and waste molecules get into and out of cells, a study of diffusion, osmosis, and active transport.

- Sugar (glucose) movement in your body, into and out of cells. Sketch and discuss.

- Rapid fire . practice problems 1,2,3

- Writes and rewrites from yesterday's question.

The Daily. week 16. November 23-27, 2020

- A lot of the extra credit questions had to do with the cell membrane. Let's revisit that today. The membrane we worked with last week was a piece of plastic tubing with tiny little holes in it. How was this like a cell membrane?

- How was it different than a cell membrane?

- I will give you a small group. Your job is to build a model of the cell membrane using the items on the front table or anything else you can find. Use your computer to get some google images that might help you. Your model should include lipid bilayer including the individual lipid molecules, protein channels, protein pumps, concentration gradients associated with the channels and pumps. Be prepared to answer questions about how your model can be used to show active and passive transport.

- practice quiz "cell membranes"

- Over the break you eat some turkey and lift some weights. The turkey has to get into your muscle cells in order for you to gain strength lifting the weights.

- Let's track the turkey through various systems, organs, tissues, and cells.

- Let's sketch different kinds of cells involved in this process:

Use google images to give you some ideas. Sketch these in your notebook.

Energy

The Daily. week 17. Nov 30-Dec 4, 2020

Monday November 30, 2020 ATP

- Reminder there will be some grades taken this week based on your participation. Be present. Be engaged. Be ready to answer some questions.

- Expect a quiz on moodle later this week.

- Review . getting things into and out of the cell.

- Different cells in different places doing different things.

- Energy . let's work backwards . You're playing basketball. You need energy to keep the effort up for 4 quarters. The immediate source of energy for your muscles to keep contracting is ___________. This gets made in the mitochondria of muscle cells by breaking down your food, especially carbohydrates. Where did the carbohydrates get the energy? _________

Look around your room right now. Can you grab some things and make a simple model of ATP? You might have to google image what ATP looks like to get an idea. Come back in 5 minutes with some samples.

- Assign: Watch ATP linked below.

- Assign: Read 8.1. You will find more of the energy and ATP story there.

Tuesday. December 1, 2020 Light and color

- warm up . Great job on the ATP models yesterday! Very creative! And what's the point? What does ATP do for you?

- Take a look at my model. Observations? Anything different? What happened? "Springs"

- Batteries charged and not charged

- warm up . welcome to the dark room . light and prisms . can you see the rainbow?

- lasers and gummy bears . Let me try this.

how it was supposed to work.

- What's the connection between the light today and the ATP energy story yesterday.

- Photoysynthesis . which starts with light striking a leaf.

- Assign: Watch light and color and leaves are green videos below. Read 8.2

Wednesday, December 2, 2020. Chloroplasts

- practice quiz - light and color (see link below)

- Build a stack . what is it?

- thylakoids. This is where the chlorophyll is.

Thursday. December 3, 2020 Photosynthesis

- We had a lot of misses on yesterday's practice quiz. Make sure you take a look back and see the "red and the green" to figure out what went right and what went wrong. The real quiz is tomorrow 8.1. 8.2. 8.3 page 208.

- Stacks . where in a plant cell would I find "stacks"? Did we see stacks in yesterday's leaf travel?

- So this whole photosynthesis story starts in the chloroplast at the thylakoids. These are the "stacks". They are actually stacks of membranes where chlorophyll and photosystems are located.

- Photosynthesis simulation. Find the link below. Let's break it down, some Q and A, and then start changing some variables and see what happens.

- This is where things start to get complicated. Let's take it one step past the "excitement/activation" of chlorophyll when light hits it. Those excited electrons will be used to pump H+ ions across a membrane resulting in the production of _________________!

- Assign: Quiz tomorrow. 8.1, 8.2. ,8.3 (part a)

- Quiz 8.1. 8.2. 8.3. light and color and ATP

- Watch: Photosynthesis (Bozeman) linked below.

The Daily. week 18 December 7-11, 2020

- Review photosynthesis simulation

- Set up photosynthesis lab

- Assign: Read 8.3. Quiz Wednesday over 8.3

- Data collection - Record in your notebook and on the board. Points for data table set up and recorded in notebook.

- Watch: photosynthesis linked below

- Quiz tomorrow 8.3. photosynthesis

- semester exam study guide

Wednesday. December 9, 2020

- Hey everybody. I had a setback yesterday with a problem called pleurisy. You can look it up if you like. Very painful. I should be back tomorrow.

- I hope you got data from the lab yesterday. There is a data table on the white board that should be in your notebook. Make sure you have the 3 lines at the bottom on colors. We'll talk about that tomorrow and move the quiz back to Friday.

- I trust you have watched the videos linked below. Those will help for Friday's quiz.

- Semester exam review. Some have asked about a study guide. Your moodle page is your study guide. Today I want you to go back to weeks 1,2,and 3. This where we started in August. The chemistry of life. Scroll through the first 3 weeks noting words highlighted in bold black type. There is usually one of those each day. Then spend some time in the resources and assessments on these topics to refresh your memory on what was covered back in August. We will continue this pattern until the exam next Thursday.

Thursday, December 10, 2020

- Post lab - photosynthesis. Data. Conclusions. Clean up.

- The photosynthesis quiz on 8.3 will be tomorrow.

- semester exam review. weeks 4,5,6

- Housekeeping. Make up tests.

- Semester exam review. weeks 7,8,9

The Daily week 19. December 14-18, 2020

- rapid fire review . New York regents exams questions.

Wednesday December 16, 2020

Thursday. December 17, 2020

- Bio 1 semester exam 8-10 A M

The Daily. week 20. January 4-8, 2021

- Hello everyone. I hope you all have had a restful break and a meaningful Christmas season remembering Jesus, our Creator and Savior. Spring seems a long way off now but it will be warmer and greener before you know. First we have to get through the cold, dark winter. The seasons are interesting.

- I can't be with you this week because of a family crisis. I would appreciate your prayers if you are a praying person. I hope to be back next Monday. I can explain more then.

- This week we will be spending some time in chapter 9 of our textbook where we learn about where we get the energy to do the things we do every day. Each day will focus on a different topic related to this idea of where we get our energy to work, play, live.

- Friday - Electron transport.

You will find information on each of these in chapter 9.

Each day you will be required to do 3 things related to the topic of the day.

1) 10 minutes of reading. Start in your textbook then do some internet searches. This 10 minute period is all about reading. Record some notes in your graphing composition book. I will check these when I return. Only notes in a graphing composition book will receive credit.

2) 10 minutes of watching. Use your ear buds or head phones or one student can airplay for the whole group. Find video related to the topic of the day. Good places to go are Kahn academy and Bozeman biology but you can find other areas as well. Record some notes in your graphing composition book. Only notes in a graphing composition book will receive credit.

3) 10 minutes of Sketching. Search "images" related to the topic of the day. Record your sketches in your graphing composition book. Only sketches in a graphing composition book will receive credit.

My sub will time each 10 minute period with a minute or two break in between. When I get back next Monday I will be checking your books and summarizing for our first test next week.

Note again - WORK IN LOOSE LEAF NOTEBOOKS OR LOOSE SHEETS OF PAPER WILL NOT RECEIVE CREDIT. ALL WORK MUST BE RECORDED IN YOUR GRAPHING COMPOSITION BOOK.

The Daily. week 21. January 11-15, 2021

- 5 notebooks will be collected each day to check on last week's work.

- Talking points . What role do each of the following have to play in what just happened with "the Gripper"?

- What caused the pain yesterday?

Wednesday January 13, 2021

- Notebooks and housekeeping

Was this most like the 100 N grip for a minute or the slow easy handshake grip for a minute?

- Review details and moving parts.

- Test. chapter 9. Cellular respiration

CELL DIVISION

The Daily. week 22. January 18-22, 2021

- Measure volume and surface area of a dice and a box. Compare surface area/volume ratio of the two objects. What does this have to do with cells? How do cells get the stuff they need and get rid of the waste?

Wednesday. January 20, 2021

- Get a large cube of the "purple jello" (Drano). Cut 3 cubes, a 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm. Place the 3 cubes in a beaker of acid. Observe. Which cube gets clear first? Why?

- Where did all these small cells come from?

- The goal: Get the correct number of chromosomes in each cell. Consequences of the incorrect number .

- Model - beads, chromosomes, mitosis

- Assign: Read 10.2 part A. pages 244-245. One page of notes including the 3 major sections listed on these pages in your textbook.

- warm up. Calculate the surface area, the volume, and the surface area to volume ratio of a cube 5 cm x 5cm x 5 cm.

- Check notes 10.2 cell division

- Observe and sketch onion root tip cells in prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

- Assign: notes pages 246-248

The Daily. week 23. January 25-29, 2021

- Housekeeping . notebooks, homework, make up

- warm up. Calculate the volume, surface area, and surface area to volume ratio of a cube 2.5 cm x 2..5 cm x 2.5 cm

- Quiz 10.1. 10.2. Purple cubes and mitosis

Wednesday. January 27, 2021

- Notebook checks and video links.

- Assign: Finish outlining 10.2. pages 246-248.

- Test Monday chapter 10 cell cycle and cell division

- How does the cell know when to start and stop dividing?

- Searching and Reading 5 minutes

- Question . How can you get the cell cycle going again? Knee injuries. Spinal cord injuries.

- cell cycle sketch . cyclins

- claymation. . build a stem cell and a nerve cell.

- Test chapter 10 cell division on Wednesday

- Microscope time. Review micro use. Find an onion root tip cell in interphase.

- After I check your interphase cell find a cell in prophase. Continue through the stages of mitosis. Don't move on until I have checked your slide.

- Vid: How growth factors influence the cell cycle.

The Daily. week 24. February 1-5, 2021

- Enjoy your snow day! Our test on chapter 10 will be on Wednesday!

- Housekeeping. Test tomorrow. chapter 10 Cell division.

- Cell division. Cell cycle. Mitosis. Student slides.

- Look at list of Triple Crown horse racing winners.

- Watch: 2015 American Pharoah wins the Triple Crown

- Where do these horses come from?

- Who's your Daddy? . parents of American Pharoah.

- Is there another way? . Review mitosis and the cell cycle. What do you start with and what do you end with?

- cloning. Search pics - 3 minutes. words - 3 minutes

- Vid clip . cloning process

- Questions . your pet? people?

- Does the Bible speak to cloning?

- Are you OK . is the Bible OK with a process that produces a lot of birth defects and terminated pregnancies?

Wednesday. February 3, 2020

- Test chapter 10 cell division

- Human genetic traits. See link below.

- Housekeeping . zoom, make up, test review

- Human genetic traits. See link below.

- Is there a pattern to how these traits are passed on from parents to offspring or is it completely random? Review Mendel's work with pea plants.

- Practice. One trait cross. Punnett squares.

- Assign: Quiz. Punnett squares. 11.1

- Quiz 11.1 Punnett square problems

- Assign: Notes 11.1 due Monday

The Daily. week 25. February 8-12, 2021

Monday. February 8, 2021

- "word wall" . Be familiar with the following list in order to work the problems on the quizzes.

- Quiz tomorrow - 2 trait cross.

- Genetics quiz. Word list + 2 trait cross

- Notes 11.1. Let's get started on this. Note the 3 main sections. These should be headings in your notes with bullet points under each heading.

- Pics . observations in flower color.

Wednesday. February 10, 2021

- Review/summarize incomplete and codominance

- Our next test will be next Tuesday or Wednesday on chapter 11. Genetics and meiosis.

- practice problems .. incomplete dominance and codominance

- Video clips . independent assortment

- Assign: Quiz Thursday 11.3. 2 trait cross, incomplete dominance, codominance

The Daily. week 26. February 15-19, 2021

Monday, February 15, 2021

- winter break

Wednesday, February 17, 2021

- Test Friday, February 19, 2021. chapter 11 Genetics

- By now you should be familiar with the language of genetics.. i.e. genotype, phenotype, homozygous, heterozygous, dominant, recessive, Punnett squares, complete dominance, incomplete dominance, and codominance. If you haven't already review the video links on independent assortment. Segregation and independent assortment are two of Mendel's laws you should be familiar with. A good part of this next test will involve setting up and solving problems as you have been doing on the last 3 quizzes. Multiple alleles (blood typing and labrador retrievers) are problems you should be able to solve. The last topic we need to deal with before the next test is meiosis. We will work on this Wednesday and Thursday to get ready for the test on Friday. Section 11.5 in the text will not be on Friday's test.

- Housekeeping. quiz return, make up, re do's

- Assign: Watch video linked below

- Read section 11.4 in the text.

Thursday. February 18, 2021

- snow day! FYI our test on chapter 11 will be next Tuesday, February 23. Scroll back through your moodle pages for the last 10 days to see what we have been working on and what you should be able to do next Tuesday.

- Friday we will be working on meiosis.

- NOTE: MISSING WORK IS NOW LISTED AS A ZERO IN POWERSCHOOL. THAT CAN BE CHANGED WHEN THE WORK GETS MADE UP OR THE MISSED QUIZ GETS TAKEN. If you did poorly on a quiz you can retake a quiz. I will leave this work with Mrs. Thompson in the blue box in the study hall. Please take the initiative to get this work done. Let me know if you need help.

The Daily. week 27. February 22-26, 2021

Monday. February 22, 2021

- housekeeping. make up

- test tomorrow. chapter 11 Genetics and meiosis

- practice quiz. meiosis. See link above.

- practice quiz. genetics. See link below.

- Test chapter 11. genetics and meiosis

Wednesday. February 24, 2021

- Innocence project. Summarize the story of someone who was in prison for crime they did not commit. How were they eventually freed?

Thursday. February 25, 2021

- Innocence project. See above

- video clip - history of DNA discovery

- Cut out 6 circles, 6 pentagons, and 6 rectangles

- Review the DNA model we built yesterday

The Daily. week 28. March 1-5, 2021

Monday. March 1, 2021

- Review - the model, the lab on Friday

- Power point . Watson and Crick

- Power point . DNA structure

- Reading time . 10 minutes. 12.1

- Warm up . Name that celebrity!

- Let's get started. DNA replication model. You will need 6 colored markers. Class participation grade.

- Watch: "The animated genome"

- Finish the worksheet. Collaborate. This should be helpful for tomorrow's quiz.

- Assign: Read 12.2. Quiz tomorrow. Mostly 12.2 but could include some 12.1.

- Finally . "I am a nucleotide!"

- How do these get assembled in the right order?

- DNA base pairing worksheet

- complementary mRNA strand

- Use the link above "transcribe and translate a gene"

- Use the genetic code to determine the amino acids coded for by the mRNA in #7-12.

- Find the link "transcribe and translate a gene". walk through.

- Can you use the genetic code? Back to yesterday's worksheet . #9

- video: transcription and translation

The Daily. week 29. March 8-12, 2021

Monday, March 8, 2021

- Quiz. 12.3 Tuesday. transcription and translation

- 10 question practice quiz

- "What difference can one letter make?

- Back to our DNA base pairing worksheet

- Examples: Ryan Clark. Denver Broncos. Video clip

- warm up. DNA simulation. Choose link below.

- Quiz. 12.3. Protein building

- Test Friday. chapter 12 DNA and protein building

- Quiz review. Review the green and red boxes. What went right? What went wrong?

- warm up . link: DNA simulation

- Review mutation activity from yesterday (yellow worksheet)

- Building a model of gene regulation

- Watch amoeba sister link below on gene regulation.

Natural Selection

The Daily. week 30. March 15-19, 2021

Monday. March 15, 2021

- test return, housekeeping, make up

- Tell us about your dog . why did you pick the dog you picked?

- Artificial selection ----> another name for breeding . dogs, horses, etc.

- simulation. Natural selection

- Assign: Read and outline 15.1

- Review bunnies, rock pocket mice, and peppered moths

- Your favorite animal. Your favorite plant.

- case study: I'm looking over a white striped clover: a case of natural selection

- Check the lab notebook. answers to exercise 1 and 2 in the Clover case.

- We have a quiz on Friday over this case and the natural selection stuff in 12.1 and 12.3

- Review . the variations in the clover.

- Review . the "selection pressures" in the habitat where you find the clover.

- Review . the graph. Explain.

- Complete exercise 9. You may collaborate. Turn in on music stand.

- Quiz Friday. The clover case and 15.1. 15.3

- Quiz Friday. 15.1. 15.3 Natural selection including

- 10,000 species of birds. where did they all come from?

- evolution of sound systems. Examples. A line of development.

- cladogram activity. Evolution of phones

- Finish the cladograms. Count the differences in DNA sequences in the animals. Is there any pattern to this? Can you construct a cladogram using these numbers?

- What story do these numbers tell?

- What story do the fossils tell?

- Check out the bottles around the room . Observations.

The Daily. week 31. March 22-26, 2021

Monday. March 22, 2021

- Review. Natural selection ----> species.

- sand observations . forams

- Test Friday. Chapter 15. Natural selection

- Arrange the strips of paper with fossils from oldest at the bottom of the page to youngest at the top of the page.

- Discuss. What are possible explanations for these observations?

- Assign: Notes (Bullet points) pages 374-376

- Check the notes. page 374-376

- A couple practice problems. Faunal succession.

- Giraffes and bacteria. long necks and antibiotic resistance . Lamarck or ?

- "Your inner fish" . comparative anatomy . evidence (weak) for evolution

- Assign: notes pages 382-384. Evidence of evolution

- Test Friday. chapter 15. Natural selection, evolution and creation, evidences, and more

count the kills. Put the kills in the tray. Tell the score keeper your number of kills.

variation and natural selection

What if there were only white beans out there?

artificial and natural selection

- Watch - Finch beaks (link below)

- Test ch. 15. Natural selection

Bacteria and Viruses

week 32. March 29-April 2, 2021

Monday. March 29, 2021

- test return/make up

- Mark a line on the bottom half of the dish. Decide what variable you want to test and follow a procedure to test your variable using your plate of agar.

- Assign: Notes. Bullet point outline pages 471-473

- Ilearn review: biological macromolecules- carbs, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids (DNA and RNA)

- Check the dishes. Try again.

- 3 cotton swabs, swab gum and/or cheek. Apply to control side of dish. Use a second swab to add hand sanitizer to experimental side of dish. Use third swab to add gum/cheek swab to experimental side of dish. Incubate.

- shape, organization, staining

- Assign: notes pages 475-477

- plates - observations and discussion. Let these ride another day.

- Watch - bacteria shapes and arrangements. Link below.

- class notes - importance of bacteria

- practice quiz - Bacteria - linked below

- Have you had your tetanus shot? Search . what is tetanus? What causes this disease? Name the bacterium. How is it prevented? Why was this such a problem in war wounds a hundred years ago? Make some bullet points to answer these questions in your notebook as you search.

- spring flowers . In a small group observe the daffodil flower. Sketch in your notebook. Label the anther, stamen, pistil, stigma, ovary, sepals,

The Daily. week 33. April 12-16, 2021

Monday. April 12, 2021

- Coming soon . ilearn biology assessment. We'll take about 10 minutes each day to revisit some concepts and ideas we have looked at through the year.

- See link below - "What are spike proteins?"

- So if we are ever going to get back to normal we have to deal with some molecules, in this case proteins. Let's review

- elements, building blocks, bonds, shapes

- what are some other "big molecules"

energy - photosynthesis and respiration

ecosystems, populations, food chains

- Activity: Watch one "roly poly" for 5 minutes. Add a qtip to your dish that has water on one end. Record 10 observations in your notebook.

- Assign: quiz Tuesday. 2.3. carbon compounds

- Quiz. 2.3 carbon compounds and roly polys

- Activity - planting seeds. cup, labeled, name and type of plant, making 2 small holes with the end of your pencil. Drop a seed in each hole. Place under the grow lights in the back of the room.

- How does water get into the seed? _______

- Assign: Quiz Wednesday. 2.2. water (Note - This quiz got moved to Thursday.)

Wednesday. April 14, 2021

- homework check

- quiz review - carbon compounds

- Reminder - quiz tomorrow - water. 2.2

- We planted seeds yesterday. Discuss . blueprints? energy sources? water and water structure and water movement.

- Reminder - 2 links below on water

- Activities - effect of blowing bubbles into a beaker of water on pH. Measure for 5 minutes using Vernier probes. Repeat after adding a spoonful of baking soda to the beaker of water.

Thursday. April 15, 2021

- Quiz. water, acids, bases.

- Read - Acidosis, see link below

- Watch: Acid rain documentary. see link below

Friday April 16, 2021

- Floating disc lab - enzyme review

- Cut out 10 punch out discs with paper punch. Soak in the potato juice for a couple minutes.

- In a test tube add 20 ml water and 1 ml hydrogen peroxide. Add 5 paper discs. They will sink. Start your timer. Time how long it takes for all 5 discs to float to the top.

- Repeat but this time add one ml of vinegar to the test tube. Record the time it takes for 5 discs to float.

- Discuss .. enzymes, conditions in which enzyme activity is optimal.

The Daily week 34. April 19-23, 2021

- Check the seedlings. Measure and record.

- Review the "floating discs". Enzymes and acids.

- Field trip . rain garden . ecosystems - _____________

- Writing prompt: " Discuss the similarities and differences between your seedling growing in a cup in the classroom and the rain garden we visited today." A few sentences in a paragraph should work for this comparison. Turn in when completed and begin the roly poly count.

- Get a cup with a spoonful of soil and organisms from the coffee can in the front of the room. Pour it out on a paper plate and count the roly polys. Record your number in your notebook and on the board.

- If we did this again on the last day of school what would you expect to find in the coffee can? How many roly polys? Is there a limit? Do a quick search of carrying capacity.

- video carrying capacity

Tuesday. April 20, 2021

- Watch Human impact on ecosystems. Write down 4 impacts discussed in the video.

- Test #3 this quarter will be Friday. The ecosystem like the rain garden, energy flow through an ecosystem, cycling of nutrients, especially carbon , through the ecosystem, aquatic ecosystems like the wetland (rain garden), biodiversity and impact of invasive species, and role of photosynthesis and respiration in the ecosystem.

- Textbook sections related to this test: 3-2,3-3, 4-2, 4-4, 6-3, chapter 8 and 9. Focus on things covered in class. Taking good class notes will help.

- If we took our roly polys and dumped them in the rain garden what role would they play? Where would they get energy?

Wednesday. April 21, 2021

- Note: Friday's test has been moved to Monday. We have a safety drill on Friday during periods 6 and 7 so our time might be cut short.

- video - human impact on the ecosystem. List 4 impacts in your notebook during or after the video.

- Activity - Measuring oxygen consumption and CO2 release by roly polys. Vernier probes. Logger pro. Collect data for 10 minutes.

- Discuss . observations. What happened to the level of O2 and CO2 in the bottle during the 10 minute time frame? Why? Let's take a look at a couple models of cellular respiration and see if we can follow the O2 and CO2.

- Assign: Continue to review the reading list noted above in preparation for Monday's test.

Thursday. April 22, 2021

- Review the O2 and CO2 measurements from the roly poly lab.

- Effect of dissolved oxygen in aquatic environments.

- Measure DO in stream. Part I

Friday. April 23, 2021

- Please take a moment and fill out the surveys located at the top of the moodle page. There are 2 links there . multiple choice and comments.

- 2 things to do today . make sure we are on the same page for Monday's test. And finish the dissolved oxygen test we started yesterday. And we are working around the safety drill today.


List of natural phenomena

1- Gravity

Gravity is a natural phenomenon of the physical type. This is a force that is generated in the center of the Earth and that attracts the other objects towards it.

Without gravity, there would not even be this planet since the Earth's crust would not be able to stay in position.

2- Sound

Sound is also a physical phenomenon that occurs in wave form. Such a wave can be transported through the air or through other materials (eg, water).

3- Light

Like sound, light is a wave. This wave is fragmented, reflected and refracted. Fragmentation is the process that allows you to create rainbows.

Reflection is what happens in the mirrors. Finally, refraction occurs when viewed through a lens.

4- Breaking Dawn

Dawn is one of the most common meteorological phenomena. This occurs when the sun rises and the first rays strike the earth's surface.

5- Twilight

Twilight is the sunrise counterpart. This phenomenon is formed by the last rays of the Sun that are observed at the end of the day.

6- Tornado

Tornadoes are violent storms with winds that revolve around the same axis, forming a cone.

7- Rainbow

The rainbow is a meteorological and atmospheric phenomenon that is formed by the fragmentation that is generated when the light crosses a drop of water. It can be formed by one or two arcs.

8- Solar Eclipse

Solar eclipses occur when the Moon is positioned between the Earth and the Sun, covering the latter. If the Moon covers only a part of the Sun, then it is a partial eclipse. For its part, if the Moon completely covers it, then it is a total eclipse.

9- Earthquake

Earthquakes geological phenomena. These consist of movements produced in the earth's crust.

10- Tsunami

The tsunami is a large wave generated by an underwater earthquake. This phenomenon is common on the coasts of Japan and the Pacific Ocean. Their action is destructive.

11- Geyser

Geysers are warm underground water courses that erupt periodically due to pressure. Like earthquakes, they are geological phenomena.

12- Aurora

The aurora is a meteorological phenomenon of atmospheric type. This occurs when the particles from the solar winds are channeled by the electromagnetic field of the Earth.

When these particles reach the atmosphere, the atoms present are transformed into ions, releasing light.

13- Decomposition

Decomposition is a biological phenomenon through which organic matter is transformed into much simpler substances. In the decomposition, some bacteria and some members of the Fungi kingdom intervene.

For example, if a piece of fruit is left outside the refrigerator, it is observed that with the passage of time this begins to present external changes in its color and even in its smell.

14- Anabolism

Anabolism is a biological phenomenon that consists of the synthesis of complex substances from simpler substances.

The most common example of anabolism is photosynthesis, which is the way in which plants produce food.

15- Catabolism

Catabolism is also a biological phenomenon. It differs from anabolism because instead of creating, it destroys. This means that catabolic reactions degrade molecules, a process that is carried out to obtain energy.

16- Fermentation

Fermentation is the biological process that involves the transformation of sugar into acids or into alcohols. Thanks to this phenomenon, drinks like wine are created.

17- Swirl

Swirls are vorágines that are formed in the seas due to the action of the marine currents and the waves.

In general, water swirls are not capable of sinking a large boat (as some movies make believe) but can catch small boats.

18- Seasons of the year

The seasons of the year (winter, spring, summer and autumn) are regular changes in the climatic conditions that occur due to the movement of the Earth around the Sun.

19- Sandstorm

Sand storms occur in desert areas where the substrate is not properly fixed to the earth's crust.

This phenomenon occurs when the strong winds raise the particles of the earth towards the atmosphere. These particles are transported for miles, causing damage to their passage.

20- Tides

Tides are movements that occur on the surface of the sea. During the day, there are two types of tides: high and low. This movement depends on the gravitational force exerted by the Moon on Earth.

21- Static electricity

Static electricity is a physical phenomenon that is generated by friction. For example, sometimes when a child goes down a slide, you can see that your hair is pointed. This is the effect of static electricity running through the body of the individual.


Effects of natural disasters

The effects of natural disasters are many and varied. Some are short term effects that can be fixed with relative ease while others last for years. Natural disasters have three general types of effects: primary effects, secondary effects, and tertiary effects. Δ]

  • Primary effects are the direct result of the natural disaster, such as collapsed buildings and water damage.
  • Secondary effects are the result of primary effects. Examples of secondary effects include power outages due to fallen trees or damaged building and fires from broken gas lines. In these examples, the fallen trees and the damaged building would be primary effects that caused the power outages and fires (secondary effects).
  • Tertiary effects are the long term effects of natural disasters. These include changes in the landscape and natural features, loss of habitat, and crop failure or reduction due to cooler temperatures or other interference. Ε]


Watch the video: 5 unglaubliche Naturkatastrophen die mit Kamera festgehalten wurden (August 2022).