In details

Summary table of mixture separation methods


Homogeneous Mixtures

METHOD

PROCESS

Simple Distillation (Solid + Liquid)

On heating, only the liquid boils, vaporizes and then condenses away from the solid.

Fractional Distillation (Liquid + Liquid)

Upon heating, the liquids vaporize and then condense as their boiling points are reached.

Fractional Liquefaction (Gas + Gas)

By cooling the mixture, the gases liquefy separately as their boiling points are reached.

Simple Heating (Gas + Liquid)

By heating below the boiling point of the liquid, the dissolved gas is expelled.

Heterogeneous Mixtures

METHOD

PROCESS

Picking (Solid + Solid)

The fragments are picked by hand or tweezers

Ventilation (Solid + Solid)

Separation of the most component leads by airflow.

Levigation (Solid + Solid)

Separation of the most component leads by water stream.

Fractional Dissolution (Solid + Solid)

Separation by means of a liquid that dissolves only one component.

Magnetic Separation (Solid + Solid)

Only one component is attracted to the magnet.

Fractional Fusion (Solid + Solid)

Heat separation of the mixture until melting of the lower melting component.

Fractional Crystallization (Solid + Liquid)

Add a liquid that dissolves all solids. Upon evaporation of the obtained solution, the components crystallize separately.

Sieving or Screening (Solid + Solid)

The components are reduced to grains of different sizes.

Sedimentation

Separation of two or more layers due to different densities.

Decantation (Solid + Liquid)

After sedimentation the liquid phase is drained.

Filtration (Solid + Liquid)

Separates the liquid or gas phase from the solid by means of a porous surface.

Centrifugation (Solid + Liquid)

Decanting accelerated by a centrifuge.