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Rubble is the collection of fragments or remains of brick, concrete, mortar, steel, wood, etc., from waste in the construction, renovation and / or demolition of structures such as buildings, residences and bridges.
Construction debris is therefore made up of debris and material fragments, while demolition is made up only of debris, thus having a higher qualitative potential compared to construction debris.
The amount of rubble generated in the constructions that are carried out in Brazilian cities demonstrates a huge waste of material. The costs of this waste are spread across society, not only by increasing the final cost of construction but also by the costs of removal and treatment of rubble.
Most of the time, the rubble is removed from the work and clandestinely disposed of in places such as wastelands, river banks and peripheral streets. The municipalities commit resources, not always measurable, for the removal or treatment of this rubble: there is the work of removing the rubble from the bank of a river as well as cleaning galleries and desortering the streambed where the material ends up being deposited.
Despite causing so many problems, the rubble should be seen as source of useful materials for construction. Its most traditional use - in landfills - is not always the most rational one, as it is also used to replace materials normally extracted from deposits or can become raw material for building components of comparable quality to traditional materials.
The rubble recycling process for aggregates basically involves the selection of recyclable rubble materials and shredding in appropriate equipment. Waste found predominantly in the rubble, which is recyclable for aggregate production, belongs to groups I and II.
- Group I - cement, lime, sand and gravel composite materials: concretes, mortar, concrete blocks.
- Group II - ceramic materials: tiles, shackles, bricks, tiles.
- Group III - non-recyclable materials: soil, plaster, metal, wood, paper, plastic, organic matter, glass and Styrofoam. Of these materials, some may be selected for further use. Thus, paper and cardboard packaging, wood and even glass and metal can be collected for reuse or recycling.