Why do flipped cockroaches sometimes lose their heads?

Why do flipped cockroaches sometimes lose their heads?

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Sometimes I see in my house there are flipped cockroaches whose lose their heads. I used to have a cat, but there is no pet in my house anymore so I think it's only ants can be involved in this. But if so, the headless cockroach should be preyed already. Is there any explanation for this?

In all likelihood, it is your cat who crunches the cockroach's head once it catches it and/or finishes playing with it.

Ants do eat bugs but they are usually not so selective that they'll carry off the head alone. With more manageable insects, they carry the whole thing off; otherwise they take it apart and carry it away in pieces if they're interested in it as a food source.

If you watch a cat with a mouse, chipmunk, bird, large insect, etc, they often seek to kill the animal with a throat or nape bite if they are done 'playing' with it. I've found headless prayer mantises and other large insects in my garage many times, and have seen my cats beheading them.

The techniques that cats use to kill prey vary with prey size

Until recently, electroreception was known only in vertebrates. Recent research has shown that bees can detect the presence and pattern of a static charge on flowers. [4] In vertebrates, electroreception is an ancestral trait, that is to say that it was present in the last common ancestor of all vertebrates. [5] This form of ancestral electroreception is called ampullary electroreception, with the receptive organs themselves called Ampullae of Lorenzini. [1] Not all vertebrates that possess electroreception have Ampullae of Lorenzini. Ampullae of Lorenzini exist in cartilaginous fishes (sharks, rays, chimaeras), lungfishes, bichirs, coelacanths, sturgeons, paddlefish, aquatic salamanders, and caecilians. [5] [6] Other vertebrates that have electroreception such as catfish, gymnotiformes, Mormyridiformes, monotremes, and at least one species of cetacean all have different secondarily derived forms of electroreception. [1] [7] Ampullary electroreception is passive, and is used predominantly in predation. [8] [9] [1] Two groups of teleost fishes are weakly electric and engage in active electroreception: the Neotropical knifefishes (Gymnotiformes) and the African elephantfishes (Notopteroidei). A rare terrestrial exception is the Western long-beaked echidna which has about 2,000 electroreceptors on its bill, compared to 40,000 for its semi-aquatic monotreme relative, the duck-billed platypus. [10]

Electroreceptive animals use this sense to locate objects around them. This is important in ecological niches where the animal cannot depend on vision: for example in caves, in murky water and at night. Many fish use electric fields to detect buried prey. Some shark embryos and pups "freeze" when they detect the characteristic electric signal of their predators. [11] It has been proposed that sharks can use their acute electric sense to detect the earth's magnetic field by detecting the weak electric currents induced by their swimming or by the flow of ocean currents. The walking behaviour of cockroaches can be affected by the presence of a static electric field: they like to avoid the electric field. [12] Cabbage loopers are also known to avoid electric fields. [12]

Active electrolocation Edit

In active electrolocation, [13] the animal senses its surrounding environment by generating electric fields and detecting distortions in these fields using electroreceptor organs. This electric field is generated by means of a specialised electric organ consisting of modified muscle or nerves. This field may be modulated so that its frequency and wave form are unique to the species and sometimes, the individual (see Jamming avoidance response). Animals that use active electroreception include the weakly electric fish, which either generate small electrical pulses (termed "pulse-type") or produce a quasi-sinusoidal discharge from the electric organ (termed "wave-type"). [14] These fish create a potential which is usually smaller than one volt (1 V). Weakly electric fish can discriminate between objects with different resistance and capacitance values, which may help in identifying the object. Active electroreception typically has a range of about one body length, though objects with an electrical impedance similar to that of the surrounding water are nearly undetectable.

Passive electrolocation Edit

In passive electrolocation, the animal senses the weak bioelectric fields generated by other animals and uses it to locate them. These electric fields are generated by all animals due to the activity of their nerves and muscles. A second source of electric fields in fish is the ion pumps associated with osmoregulation at the gill membrane. This field is modulated by the opening and closing of the mouth and gill slits. [11] [15] Many fish that prey on electrogenic fish use the discharges of their prey to detect them. This behavior of a species collecting information from the communicative signals of a different species is referred to as "Eavesdropping" [16] and has been observed in the electroreceptive African sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus) whilst hunting weakly electric Marcusenius macrolepidotus. [17] This has driven the prey to evolve more complex or higher frequency signals that are harder to detect. [18]

Passive electroreception is carried out solely by ampullary electroreceptors in fish. It is sensitive to low-frequency signals (from below one, and up to tens of Hertz). [ citation needed ]

Fish use passive electroreception to supplement or replace their other senses when detecting prey and predators. In sharks, sensing an electric dipole alone is sufficient to cause them to try to eat it. [ citation needed ]

Weakly electric fish can also communicate by modulating the electrical waveform they generate, an ability known as electrocommunication. [19] They may use this for mate attraction and territorial displays. Some species of catfish use their electric discharges only in agonistic displays. [ clarification needed ]

In one species of Brachyhypopomus (a genus of South American river fish belonging to the family Hypopomidae, commonly known as bluntnose knifefishes), the electric discharge pattern is similar to the low voltage electrolocative discharge of the electric eel. This is hypothesised to be a form of Batesian mimicry of the powerfully-protected electric eel. [20]

Active electroreception relies upon tuberous electroreceptors which are sensitive to high frequency (20-20,000 Hz) stimuli. These receptors have a loose plug of epithelial cells which capacitively couples the sensory receptor cells to the external environment. Passive electroreception however, relies upon ampullary receptors which are sensitive to low frequency stimuli (below 50 Hz). These receptors have a jelly-filled canal leading from the sensory receptors to the skin surface. Mormyrid electric fish from Africa use tuberous receptors known as Knollenorgans to sense electric communication signals.

Sharks and rays Edit

Sharks and rays (members of the subclass Elasmobranchii), such as the lemon shark, rely heavily on electrolocation in the final stages of their attacks, as can be demonstrated by the robust feeding response elicited by electric fields similar to those of their prey. [21] Sharks are the most electrically sensitive animals known, responding to DC fields as low as 5 nV/cm.

The electric field sensors of sharks are called the ampullae of Lorenzini. They consist of electroreceptor cells connected to the seawater by pores on their snouts and other zones of the head. A problem with the early submarine telegraph cables was the damage caused by sharks who sensed the electric fields produced by these cables. It is possible that sharks may use Earth's magnetic field to navigate the oceans using this sense.

Bony fish Edit

The electric eel (actually a knifefish, not an eel), besides its ability to generate high voltage electric shocks, [22] uses lower voltage pulses for navigation and prey detection in its turbid habitat. [23] This ability is shared with other gymnotiformes.

Monotremes Edit

The monotremes are the only group of land mammals known to have evolved electroreception. While the electroreceptors in fish and amphibians evolved from mechanosensory lateral line organs, those of monotremes are based on cutaneous glands innervated by trigeminal nerves. The electroreceptors of monotremes consist of free nerve endings located in the mucous glands of the snout. Among the monotremes, the platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) has the most acute electric sense. [24] [25] The platypus has almost 40,000 electroreceptors arranged in a series of stripes along the bill, which probably aids the localisation of prey. [26] The platypus electroreceptive system is highly directional, with the axis of greatest sensitivity pointing outwards and downwards. By making quick head movements called "saccades" when swimming, platypuses constantly expose the most sensitive part of their bill to the stimulus to localise prey as accurately as possible. The platypus appears to use electroreception along with pressure sensors to determine the distance to prey from the delay between the arrival of electrical signals and pressure changes in the water. [25]

The electroreceptive capabilities of the two species of echidna (which are terrestrial) are much simpler. Long-beaked echidnas (genus Zaglossus) possess only 2,000 receptors and short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) have merely 400 concentrated in the tip of the snout. [26] This difference can be attributed to their habitat and feeding methods. Western long-beaked echidnas live in wet tropical forests where they feed on earthworms in damp leaf litter, so their habitat is probably favourable to the reception of electrical signals. Contrary to this is the varied but generally more arid habitat of their short-beaked relative which feeds primarily on termites and ants in nests the humidity in these nests presumably allows electroreception to be used in hunting for buried prey, particularly after rains. [27] Experiments have shown that echidnas can be trained to respond to weak electric fields in water and moist soil. The electric sense of the echidna is hypothesised to be an evolutionary remnant from a platypus-like ancestor. [25]

Dolphins Edit

Dolphins have evolved electroreception in structures different from those of fish, amphibians and monotremes. The hairless vibrissal crypts on the rostrum of the Guiana dolphin (Sotalia guianensis), originally associated with mammalian whiskers, are capable of electroreception as low as 4.8 μV/cm, sufficient to detect small fish. This is comparable to the sensitivity of electroreceptors in the platypus. [28] To date (June 2013), these cells have been described from only a single dolphin specimen.

Bees Edit

Bees collect a positive static charge while flying through the air. When a bee visits a flower, the charge deposited on the flower leaks over time into the ground. Bees can detect both the presence and the pattern of electric fields on flowers, and use this information to know if a flower has been recently visited by another bee and is likely to have a reduced concentration of nectar. [4] Bees detect electric fields through insulating air by mechano-reception, not electroreception. Bees sense the electric field changes via the Johnston's organs in their antennae and possibly other mechano-receptors. They distinguish different temporal patterns and learn them. During the waggle dance, honeybees appear to use the electric field emanating from the dancing bee for distance communication. [29] [30]

It has been claimed that the electromagnetic fields generated by pylons and masts have adverse effects on wildlife a list of 153 references to this has been published. [31]

SIDS Risk Factors

Recent studies suggest the following factors can put infants at greater risk of SIDS:

  • Side or stomach sleeping: Researchers have established a strong link between SIDS and sleeping position. The prone (stomach) and side positions increases the risk of hypercapnia, the buildup of carbon dioxide, and hypoxia, a deficiency of oxygen in the body’s tissue. Additionally, stomach sleeping can decrease the infant’s rate of heat loss and elevate their body temperature, causing them to overheat, and also affect how their cardiovascular system functions. The side sleeping position is considered just as dangerous, and infants are more likely to roll onto their stomachs when resting on their sides. Current guidelines recommend placing infants in the supine (back sleeping) position until they reach one year. This includes nightly sleeping and daytime naps.
  • Age: Infants younger than six months old represent roughly 90 percent of all SIDS-related deaths. It’s believed the risk of SIDS peaks between one and four months. Additionally, preterm infants with low birth weights are considered at higher risk of SIDS. Consistent back sleeping is considered especially important for preterm infants.
  • Sleep environment: Per current guidelines for parents and caregivers, infants should sleep on firm, flat surfaces covered in fitted sheets. The baby’s sleep area should not contain any soft blankets, pillows, toys, or bumper pads. A significant percentage of infants who die from SIDS are found with their heads covered by bedding items. Parents should also ensure there are not any gaps between the edge of the mattress and the crib two fingers is considered the standard rule-of-thumb.
  • Bed sharing: While common practice for parents, sharing a bed with an infant is discouraged because adult beds are not optimized for child safety. The link between co-sleeping and SIDS is still under review, but this can increase the child’s risk of strangulation, falling, and other hazards. Many adult mattresses are also outfitted with soft bedding, blankets or quilts that could cover the infant’s head, and other materials that increase the risk of SIDS. However, parents are encouraged to share a bedroom with their infant while they sleep in a crib or bassinet. SIDS can occur suddenly and infants often make little to no noise, so sharing a room allows parents to keep an eye on their little one throughout the night. Parents should consider sharing a bedroom with their baby for at least the first six months, and up to one year if possible.
  • Tobacco: Nearly every major epidemiologic study involving SIDS has pinpointed smoking as a major risk factor. This includes expectant mothers smoking while pregnant according to some studies, up to one-third of SIDS-related deaths could be prevented if mothers completely avoided smoking throughout their pregnancy. Exposing newborns and infants to cigarette smoke is also potentially dangerous. The risk of SIDS is particularly high for infants who share a bed with someone who smokes, even if they don’t smoke while in bed.
  • Alcohol: Consuming alcohol while pregnant can increase the risk of SIDS for infants after they are born, some studies have shown. This includes alcohol use during the periods immediately prior to and following conception, as well as the first trimester.
  • Feeding: Babies who breastfeed are considered at lower risk for SIDS than those who do not drink breast milk. The risks are also lower for babies who are exclusively breastfed compared to those whose breast milk diet is supplemented with formula or solid food. Mothers should not breastfeed on chairs, sofas, and other upright surfaces where they could potentially fall asleep, as this is a suffocation risk for babies.

Some SIDS risks are suspected, but have not been studied extensively enough to draw a firm conclusion. For instance, studies have identified poor bedroom ventilation as a potential risk factor for SIDS, but more research is needed regarding this topic.

Other risk factors have been largely debunked. One prominent example is vaccines. Many infants receive several vaccines within the first six months of their life, when SIDS is most likely to occur. A wave of SIDS deaths occurred in the late 1970s, and at the time some suspected the deaths were related to the diphtheria-tetanus toxoids-pertussis vaccine. However, subsequent studies note there is no relationship between SIDS and any vaccines.

SIDS Trends

In 1994, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the U.S. National Institute of Health spearheaded the “Back to Sleep” initiative to educate parents about SIDS and its risk factors. The campaign was based on a 1992 recommendation from the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), which stated infants were safest while sleeping on their back or side. This recommendation was later updated to state that only the back position was safe. Today, the same program operates under the name “Safe to Sleep.”

In 1992, 120 infants died from SIDS per 100,000 live births. From 1992 to 2001, SIDS deaths in the U.S. decreased by 53 percent. This number remained constant for several years, and then further declines were reported between 2009 and 2013. As of 2017, the number of SIDS deaths per 100,000 live births has fallen below 40. Some studies suggest the decrease in SIDS cases is related to the growing number of parents who place their infants in the back sleeping position.

However, SIDS remains the leading cause of death for infants between the ages of 28 days and one year. Furthermore, some statistical studies have found disparities between different racial and ethnic groups. In surveys of mothers with varying racial and ethnic backgrounds, researchers have noted certain trends regarding co-sleeping with infants, placing infants on their backs for sleep, and the use of soft bedding in cribs. Socioeconomic factors may also be at play, as low-income families with more than one small child may resort to crib-sharing or bed-sharing in order to save space.

Related Reading

How to get rid of termites with wings in house

There are several ways of eliminating flying termites and they include the following

Orange oil

This oil has been tested by professionals and found to be an effective termite killer. D-limonene is the active ingredient in orange oil which explains its excellence in killing termites.

Orange oil kills termites by dissolving the exoskeleton and as such depriving them of their body water and proteins. This is a Do It Yourself termite killer and you will only need to orange oil and a spray bottle.

  1. Into your spray bottle, add the orange oil.
  2. Follow flying termites to their home colonies and spray them or just spray them when they are on flight.
  3. You should also spray the furniture and walls where you see evident activity of flying termites. Pour the oil in holes where termites are likely to rest.

Using peppermint spray

This spray kills termites by suffocating them. You can prepare the spray all by yourself at home.

  1. Make a mixture of liquid soap and water in a ratio of 1:2 in a spray bottle.
  2. Add a few drops of peppermint oil.
  3. Stir to mix all the elements.
  4. Spray this mixture on the flying termites whether they are in their nest or actually flying.

Commercial aerosol

This is one of the most effective natural techniques used to kill flying termites. You are advised to choose an aerosol which has a spurt that is easy to direct.

You must read the instructions given before using the aerosol to kill the termites. It is the toxins making up the aerosol that kill the termites.

  1. Locate the favorite spot of the termites and establish if that’s their home.
  2. Spray the termites on flight even if you have not found out where they live since they will eventually carry the toxins to the rest of the colony.

Use dish soap

This soap kills termites by dehydrating them.

  1. Add water to a bottle then pour in some spurt of liquid meal soap.
  2. Ensure the soap is dispersed very well in the water by stirring the water mixture.
  3. You can then spray the winged termites whether they are resting or on flight.

Use diatomaceous earth

Just like the dish soap, diatomaceous earth kills termites by dehydrating their bodies. Once a termite flies into the diatomaceous earth, it gets into direct contact with it and the granules slice the termite’s body.

You are advised to place the granules next to termites sources of food since flying termites are likely to land next to their food.

  1. Sprinkle diatomaceous earth around the area where termites have been seen.
  2. Do not sprinkle so much of the substance a thin layer will be enough so that you monitor to see if any termites will be killed.
  3. Although this method works slowly to kill the termites, it will eventually turn out to be very successful. You are advised to repeat the procedure after every few days.

Try a bug zapper

Electrical bug zapper kills winged termites just like any other flying insects. Termites will be attracted by the light in the zappers. Once they are attracted to the light and get to the zapper, they are electrocuted.

  1. Locate the area where the flying termites are commonly seen.
  2. Hang the bug zapper on the located area.
  3. The winged termites will fly into the bug zappers. They are most effective when hanged in open areas.
  4. Always ensure there are no lights around the area you position the bug zapper as that would reduce the chances of all termites being drawn to the light from the zapper.

Artificial sweetener

Some of the artificial sweeteners sold in the stores are very toxic to termites. The sweet smell works the magic by attracting the termites. Once the termites eat the sweetener and it ends up in their stomach, they will die of the high toxic levels.

  1. Add the artificial sweetener to some apple juice and stir to mix so as to form a thick paste.
  2. Place the sweetener on a cardboard then take the cardboard to the area where you spotted the flying termites.
  3. The termites, with an aim of feeding on the cellulose in the cardboard as well as the sweet smelling substance, end up getting toxins in their body and they die.
  4. As they fly back to their colonies, since they may not die immediately, they carry some of the paste to the rest of the colony. Most of the termites hence die and the termite population is decreased largely.
  5. After a couple of days or a week, repeat the procedure to attain total success in eliminating the flying termites.

Examine and clear the area surrounding your home

Probably, all you need to do in order to get rid of flying termites for good is take an immediate action on what should surround your house. This involves doing away with anything that is likely to draw termites to your home. Below are some of the main actions you should take

  1. Get rid of the mulch around your home not unless it is cedar mulch
  2. If there are any tree stumps or unnecessary wood around your home, remove it as well. Remember termites will stick around your home as long as they can get food and therefore you can end their visits by discarding their food.
  3. Free your home of any moisture. Termites love damp places. They prefer making homes in such areas where they multiply and increase their population. Since flying termites are on flight in search of a home to start a colony, they are likely to settle for the moist places around your house. Do away with any moisture so that your home will not be their new habitat.

If you do the above and the flying termites still show up, there may be something else which is bringing the termites to your home. The best thing to do at such a point is use other methods to destroy the termite colonies.

Dig dip and flood the area

Some of the flying termites belong to the colonies that live underground. As earlier mentioned, the best and long term solution is always to terminate the entire colony.

  1. Dig deep into the ground until you find the home of the termites.
  2. Pour a lot of water to flood the soil and as such drown the termites to death.
  3. If you do not wish to use the flooding method, use any other methods such as spraying the termites once you find their underground home.

Use Neem oil

Although this is a very slow method when it comes to killing termites, it is safe and effective. It works as a growth inhibitor. When termites come into contact with this oil, they can no longer molt and hence growth comes to an end. Sometimes, termites exposed to neem oil can neither eat nor lay eggs.

  1. Pour some neem oil on a cotton ball.
  2. On the area or furniture where the flying termites have been located, apply the oil using the cotton ball.
  3. Repeat the application process severally until no flying termites can be seen.
  • Track and destroy the nest of the flying termites

The best and one of the most perfect ways of eliminating termites is destroying their home. You will need to destroy the entire colony by destroying their nest.

  1. When you notice a group of winged termites, you are advised to follow them until you see where they live. Following them is easiest way of knowing where exactly they live.
  2. You can use any chemicals that are designed to kill termites to spray the entire termite colony in the nest you discovered.

Borax and sugar trap

Being very harmful to insects, borax is very helpful in eliminating flying termites. To attract the termites to this toxic substance, sweeteners are added to it. Without their knowledge, termites carry the poisoned food to the rest of the colony and within no time, they all will be dead.

  1. Mix borax and sugar in equal patterns.
  2. Add water slowly as you stir to obtain a thick but consistent paste.
  3. Apply this paste on a cardboard which will act like a baiting system.
  4. Put the cardboard just next to the favorite areas of the flying termites.
  5. For total success, repeat this procedure at intervals of one week.

The methods discussed above are’ Do It Yourself’ since they have minimal side effects on the surrounding people.

There are chemical ways of getting rid of flying termites and they will require a professional or, if you must use them, you must be extremely carefully. You must take the necessary precautionary measures. They include the following

  • Use of arsenic dust which involves sprinkling trioxide on the area where the flying termites stay or originate is one of the chemical ways used to kill termites. Depending on where you live, you must be sure about the rules giving directions on its use.
  • Use of permethrin dust which kills termites instantly is another effective way. Just like the arsenic dust, you just need to spread it on the infested area and you will find all the termites dead.
  • Bio-Blast is yet another remedy which involves use of fungus to kill termites with fungal spore. In this case, hiring a professional is the best decision you can make since it is a very dangerous method of killing termites. It could affect human being badly.

How Cockroaches Work

Most people can recognize cockroaches instantly. They're brown or black insects that are usually between half an inch and two inches long (12-50 millimeters), minus their long antennae. Their heads point downward, almost as if they're built for ramming. Males usually have wings, but females often don't. Those that do usually have vestigial wings -- small, undeveloped wings that often don't allow the roach to fly.

Although their reputation often sets them apart, roaches have a lot in common with other insects. Their bodies have three primary regions -- the head, the thorax and the abdomen. They have three pairs of jointed legs, one pair of antennae and a rigid exoskeleton. Roaches shed their exoskeleton, or molt, several times during their lives. After molting, most roaches are white and easily injured until a hormone called bursicon causes the exoskeleton to darken and harden. Sometimes, a roach can re-grow a lost limb when it molts and even put off molting to allow the new limb to grow.

Roaches' heads house their eyes, antennae and mouthparts. Contrary to popular perception, their heads also house their brains. However, much of their nervous system activity takes place in nerve ganglia located throughout their bodies. This is one of the reasons why a headless roach can live for more than a week. The other is that roaches don't breathe through a nose or mouth. Instead, they draw air through spiracles, or holes in their sides. Tubes called tracheae deliver oxygen from the spiracles to organs and tissues. When a headless roach finally dies, it dies of thirst.

Although not as distinctive as the eyes of dragonflies or houseflies, cockroaches' eyes are compound and are made of photoreceptor cells called ommatidia. A hard ring called the ocular sclerite surrounds the photoreceptors. Because of this compound structure, cockroaches see the world as a mosaic.

Movable antennae, also known as antennal flagella, allow roaches to feel and smell the world around them. Although the antennae look like threads, they're really made of lots of tiny, hair-covered segments. These segments are shorter and thicker near the roach's head, and they're longer and thinner near the tips.

Roaches' mouths, like those of other insects, are significantly different from mammals' mouths. However, many mouthparts serve the same function as parts of a mammal's mouth:

  • The labrum and labium form lips.
  • Two mandibles have cutting and grinding surfaces like teeth.
  • Two maxillae manipulate the food while the roach chews.

The Thorax

A roach's thorax houses the attachments for three pairs of legs and, if the roach has them, two pairs of wings. Each of the three pairs of legs is named after the region of the thorax to which it attaches:

  • The prothoracic legs are closest to the roach's head. These are the roach's shortest legs, and they act like brakes when the roach runs. A portion of the prothorax also covers the roach's head.
  • The middle legs are the mesothoracic legs. They move back and forth to either speed the roach up or slow it down.
  • The very long metathoracic legs are the roach's back legs, and they move the roach forward. Using its metathoracic legs, a roach can move about 50 body lengths in a second. A human moving that quickly would be running about 200 miles per hour. When a roach runs this quickly, it sometimes raises up and runs on its back legs only. The force of the air it encounters keeps it upright.

These three pairs of legs have substantially different lengths and functions, but they have the same parts and move the same way. The upper portion of the leg, called the coxa, attaches the leg to the thorax. The other parts of the leg approximate parts of a human leg:

  • The trochanter acts like a knee and lets the roach bend its leg.
  • The femur and tibia resemble thigh and shin bones.
  • The segmented tarsus acts like an ankle and foot. The hook-like tarsus also helps roaches climb walls and walk upside down on ceilings.

Each leg moves up and down like a pogo stick and back and forth like a pendulum. The front and back legs on one side move at the same time as the middle leg on the other side. In this way, the roach can move over nearly any terrain.

When a roach is running as fast as it can, its legs move back and forth about 27 times per second. When it runs upside down on a ceiling, it takes longer steps in an attempt not to fall down. In fact, it takes significantly more energy for a roach to run upside down than to run up a vertical wall.

The Abdomen

Most insects have a segmented abdomen that contains most of their internal organs, and roaches are no exception. Inside a roach's abdomen, a tube-like heart moves blood to organs and tissues. Unlike human blood, a roach's blood doesn't use hemoglobin to carry oxygen, so it is colorless instead of red. The blood also doesn't travel through an extensive circulatory system. Although an aorta carries blood to specific organs, much of the blood travels through a network of spaces called a hemocoel. Roaches also store fat a little differently than people do. Instead of spreading it throughout most of their physical structure, they store it in one centralized location called the fat body.

A roach's digestive system is located in its abdomen, and much of it resembles a simplified version of a mammal's digestive system. However, a roach's digestive system has a few modifications that let it eat cellulose and other tough materials. One of these is a crop, which holds swallowed food until a toothy section of the digestive tract, called the proventriculus, can pulverize it. Sacs called the gastric cacea hold enzymes and microbes that continue to digest the food. This extra digestive help is particularly important if the roach eats cellulose or wood. Only after the material is thoroughly broken down can the roach's midgut absorb the food's nutrients.

Two segmented cerci lie on the exterior of the lower part of a roach's abdomen. These somewhat resemble antennae, and they can behave as sensory organs. A nerve inside the roach allows it to detect air movement around its cerci. This is one reason roaches can move out of the way very quickly if you try to catch or crush them.

Roaches' reproductive systems are also located in their abdomen. We'll look at this system and at the cockroach life cycle next.

Often, an antenna will continue to react to stimuli even after it has been removed from a roach. Scientists have taken advantage of this phenomenon to create theelectroantennogram -- an antenna attached to an oscilloscope. Researchers have used this device to study cockroach pheromones, or chemicals used to attract other roaches. These pheromones could be used to make more effective roach baits.

Cockroaches may seem indestructible, but they are food for a variety of other animals. Some species of wasp use cockroaches as incubators for their eggs. A female wasp will sting a roach or remove its antennae to disable it. Then, she will lay her eggs inside the roach, where they will grow until they hatch. In addition, another household pest, the common house centipede, eats cockroach nymphs.

American Cockroaches Facts & Information

Length: Adults can be slightly more than 50 mm (3 inches) long.

Color: Adult American cockroaches are reddish brown or mahogany colored. The area behind their heads is outlined with a yellow band.


Female American cockroaches make protective cases for their eggs. These cases are capsule-shaped. After forming a capsule, the roach deposits it in a warm, humid area. An average American roach egg capsule contains about 16 eggs.

When the eggs hatch, the tiny nymphs come out of the capsule. As they grow, the baby cockroaches shed their skins. If there is plenty of food, American cockroaches can develop from egg to adult in as little as 5½ months.

Behavior & Diet

Both male and female American cockroaches can fly. The wings develop when the roaches become adults.

American cockroaches normally live outdoors. They prefer warm, damp areas like flowerbeds, and under mulch. In many parts of the United States people call them “palmetto bugs” because they live on trees. American cockroaches are very common in sewer systems of many American cities.

American cockroaches enter homes to find water or food. They can easily pass under doors if the weather stripping is damaged. Basement windows and garages are also common entryways. When American cockroaches enter homes, they often go to bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms and basements.

Outdoors, American cockroaches eat leaves, tiny wood particles, fungi and algae. They also eat small insects. Indoors, American cockroaches forage under appliances, in drains, in kitchen cabinets and on the floor. They eat crumbs, scraps of food and spilled food that they find. They will also eat pet food that is left out overnight.

Signs of American Cockroach Infestation

Homeowners may see these active cockroaches. American roaches can run very fast, and they usually scurry into a dark area. If they are startled, American roaches may even fly.

American cockroaches leave their droppings in the dark areas where they hide. Homeowners may find these droppings in basements, in pantries or behind appliances.

American cockroach droppings are small, and sometimes people mistake them for mouse droppings. American cockroach droppings have ridges on the sides and they are blunt on the ends. Mouse droppings have pointed ends. Since mice groom themselves, mouse droppings often have hairs embedded in them.

Egg Capsules

American cockroach egg cases are about 38 mm long. They are dark-colored—reddish or blackish brown. Homeowners often find these egg cases in basements, in laundry rooms or kitchens. The egg cases may be under cabinets or behind appliances. American cockroaches also deposit their egg capsules behind stored items in garages and sheds.

Cockroaches produce a chemical called an “aggregation pheromone.” The odor of this chemical causes the roaches to stay together in groups. Some people describe the odor of these pheromones as having a “musty” smell. As the roach population starts to grow, people with sensitive noses may begin to notice this odor.

How Did I Get American Cockroaches?

American cockroaches enter home to find water or food. They can easily pass under doors if the weather stripping is damaged. Basement windows and garages are also common entryways. When American cockroaches enter homes, they often go to bathrooms, kitchens, laundry rooms and basements.

How Serious are American Cockroaches?

Cockroaches are filthy pests. They can spread disease, contaminate our food and cause allergies and even asthma. Cockroaches can pick up germs on their legs and bodies as they crawl through decaying matter or sewage and then transfer these germs to food or onto food surfaces. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), they are proven or suspected carriers of the organisms causing diarrhea, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, plague, typhoid fever and viral diseases such as poliomyelitis.

Orkin encourages people to help reduce cockroach populations by removing all food and unnecessary water sources, sealing all cracks and crevices, vacuuming and removing shelter sites like cardboard and paper. To effectively manage a serious cockroach infestation, you must correctly identify the type of cockroach causing the infestation, which is why it is important to contact a pest control professional.

How Do I get Rid of American Cockroaches

The Orkin Man™ is trained to help manage American cockroaches. Since every home is different, the Orkin technician will design a unique program for your situation.

Keeping American cockroaches out of your home is an ongoing process, not a one-time treatment. Orkin’s exclusive A.I.M. solution is a continuing cycle of three critical steps—Assess, Implement and Monitor.

The Orkin Man™ can provide the right solution to help keep American cockroaches in their place … out of your home.

Assess the situation

Your Orkin technician will do a thorough inspection of your home—inside and outside. There are several things the technician will do during the inspection:

  • Locate areas of American cockroach activity.
  • Identify the causes of the American cockroach problem.
  • Look for entryways that American cockroaches could be using to get into your home.

Since “cookie-cutter” treatments aren’t always effective, the technician will customize the treatment to the situation. He can select from a variety of tools and techniques to help keep American cockroaches out of your home:

  • Exclusion–Nonchemical methods such as caulking or door sweeps help keep American cockroaches from entering your home.
  • Landscape modification—If American roaches are living around your home, it may be necessary to remove dead leaves or rake mulch away from the foundation. The technician will point out these opportunities.
  • Gel or granular bait—These are applied in areas where American cockroaches will eat them but children or pets cannot reach them.
  • Insect growth regulator—Applied into cockroach hiding places, these interfere with the cockroaches’ normal development.
  • Residual insecticides—Applied into cracks and crevices, these help keep American cockroaches from hiding in the treated areas. The technician may also apply liquid insecticide outdoors to help keep American cockroaches from coming inside.

Every time the technician returns to your home, he or she will make an inspection. There are several things he will do during the inspection:

  • Confirm that previous treatment was effective.
  • Check for new American cockroach activity.
  • Identify changes to the home or landscape that could make your home vulnerable to American cockroach invasion.

The Orkin Man™ can provide the right solution to keep American cockroaches in their place … out of your home. For more information or to schedule an inspection, please contact your local Orkin branch office.

Convenient, Lasting and Affordable Treatment

The Orkin Man™ can work around your schedule. In many cases, treatments will be made on the outside—sometimes with no need for you to be at home.

On-Going Process

Keeping American cockroaches out of your home is an on-going collaborative process, not a one-time event. Orkin’s A.I.M. solution is the ideal way to help keep these pests where they belong—outside your home.

While it might seem easy to quote a service price online, in fact it really is almost impossible. Since every home is unique, no two treatment plans should be exactly the same. The best way to prescribe an effective treatment plan and to quote an accurate price is by having a trained professional complete a comprehensive inspection.

More Information

The American cockroach is also commonly known as the water bug, flying water bug or palmetto bug. These large cockroaches can grow to exceed 50 cm in length. Although the American cockroach is a major pest in the United States, they are native to the tropical climates of Africa. Some evidence has suggested that the American cockroach was brought to North America aboard ships.

American Cockroach Illustration

They are a peridomestic species and live primarily outdoors. In southern states, they are common in shady, humid areas like flowerbeds and around trees. In northern areas, they are usually found in sewers and drains. Climate changes or food shortage can cause them to move indoors.

When they move indoors, American cockroaches prefer to live in moist, humid environments. They can also survive in dry areas with sufficient food and water sources. These insects favor temperatures between 70 and 80 degrees Fahrenheit. When an American cockroach population infests a human home, the insects are drawn to food storage and preparation areas, as well as moist locations. In industrial settings such as restaurants and bakeries, they can be found in boiler rooms and steam tunnels. In residential and commercial buildings, the American cockroach typically infests basements and landscaping.

American cockroaches are moderate flyers. They also gather together in open spaces, while other domestic cockroaches tend to hide in cracks and crevices. They do enjoy sweet foods, but prefer decaying material.

Why are dead roaches always upside down?

Whenever I'm unlucky enough to stumble upon one they're always in that position.

Not all of them do. If you're killing them with some sort of pesticide or neurotoxin, like Raid, their dying brains will cause spasms in their muscles. Frequently this will flip the roach over onto its back where it will then spasm uncontrollably and helplessly until brain death is reached. Most of the dead roaches you see are probably poisoned, which would explain why you're finding them that way. Roaches rarely meet their maker in a natural way out in the open if they were to die naturally, they would probably be already too weak to leave the burrow. Too weak and slowly dying, the roaches dying of old age will most likely be on their bellies. But youɽ never see them.

To recap: roaches have mini seizures when they're poisoned, flipping them onto their backs. By sampling bias, you probably only see the poisoned ones, and draw the conclusion that dead roaches die on their backs.

Mandibulate Mouthparts

In all “primitive” insects, the mouthparts are adapted for grinding, chewing, pinching, or crushing bits of solid food. These are known as “mandibulate” mouthparts because they feature prominent chewing mandibles. There are five basic components that form these mouthparts:

  1. Labrum — a simple plate-like sclerite that serves as a front lip to help contain the food.
  2. Mandibles — a pair of jaws for crushing or grinding the food. They operate from side to side, not up and down.
  3. Maxillae — paired appendages with the following parts:
    • Cardo — basal sclerite that articulates with the head capsule
    • Stipes — medial sclerite that supports a sensory palp
    • Galea and Lacinia — distal sclerites that act as fork and spoon to manipulate the food.
  4. Hypopharynx — a tongue-like process that helps mix food and saliva.
  5. Labium — a back lip that is derived from a pair of appendages that have fused together along the midline. It is subdivided into the following parts:
    • Postmentum — fused basal sclerites that articulate with the head.
    • Prementum — distal sclerites that support another pair of sensory palps and divide apically to form four lobes the two innermost lobes are called glossae and the two outermost lobes are called paraglossae.

Examples of insects with basic mandibulate mouthparts include grasshoppers, cockroaches, and ground beetles. Immature stages of many holometabolous insects (like beetle larvae and lepidopteran caterpillars also have mandibulate mouthparts.

A tale of two theories: parent–offspring conflict and reproductive skew

Michael A. Cant , in Animal Behaviour , 2006

Testing the Theories

Despite their similarities of structure, the approach to testing the two theories has been very different. Empirical tests of POC theory typically focus on overt behavioural signs of the underlying evolutionary conflict, for example, infanticide, siblicide or costly begging behaviour (reviewed in Mock & Parker 1997 Wright & Leonard 2002 ). However, Mock et al. ( Mock & Forbes 1992 Mock & Parker 1997 ) warned against using observations of overt conflict (which they term ‘squabbling’) as prima facie evidence in support of the theory. This is because such squabbles may occur for reasons other than the genetic (or, strictly, reproductive value) asymmetries identified by Trivers (1974) , for example, as part of an honest signal of need by offspring to parents ( Godfray 1991, 1995b Godfray & Johnstone 2000 ). Nevertheless, if there were no misalignment of interests between parents and offspring, it is difficult to see why signals between them should take the form of costly displays rather than ‘conspiratorial whispers’ ( Krebs & Dawkins 1984 ). Offspring would not be forced to engage in costly signalling to establish credibility because there would be no incentive for deception. Costly signals (over and above the minimum level required for signal detection) do, therefore, imply an evolutionary conflict of interest between family members at some level.

While evolutionary conflict may exist, however, it is not necessarily selectively important. For POC theory to have heuristic value it should be demonstrated that observed phenotypes have been moulded by the conflict of interest between parents and young, rather than by selective pressures unrelated to this particular social interaction. This is a more challenging objective. Mock & Parker (1997) argued that the best tests of POC will be those that can demonstrate (1) that parents and offspring act as if at cross purposes (i.e. there are signs of overt conflict), (2) that when parents are allowed to ‘win’, offspring fitness is measurably reduced, and, conversely (3) that when offspring are allowed to ‘win’, parental fitness suffers measurably.

A similar set of criteria could usefully guide attempts to test RS theory. Experimental manipulation of reproductive shares (equivalent to allowing a dominant, or a subordinate, to ‘win’) would be informative in three ways. First, such manipulations could be used to measure just how costly, if at all, subordinate reproduction is to the reproductive success of dominants. Second, the effect of a manipulation of skew on group dynamics and productivity would help to determine which type of constraints, group stability or optimization, define the zone of conflict. For example, if manipulations do not lead to the dissolution of the group, then it is likely that the battleground is defined by optimization rather than group stability constraints, and the zone of conflict will depend (as it does in POC theory) primarily on the level of relatedness between group members rather than external ecological constraints. Third, the behavioural response of dominants and subordinates to a manipulation of skew would shed light on the mechanisms by which conflict is resolved, for example through aggression or the withdrawal of cooperation. Such experiments would be more useful than the usual approach to testing RS theory via its ‘boundary predictions’. This involves making an assumption about which party, dominant or subordinate, has control over reproductive allocations, and then comparing the predictions associated with that boundary of the battleground with correlational data across groups or species (e.g. Reeve et al. 1998 Reeve & Keller 2001 ). This sort of evidence is equivocal because different models make similar correlational predictions (e.g. Reeve 1991 Cant 1998 Johnstone 2000 ), and there is usually little information about which party controls reproduction.

The best attempt to date to distinguish rival skew models also illustrates the difficulties in doing so via their correlational predictions. Langer et al. (2004) performed an elegant experiment in which they created ‘designer groups’ of high and low relatedness in the social bee Exoneura nigrescens, and varied ecological constraints on dispersal in experimental plots. They found that high-relatedness groups shared reproduction more evenly and were more productive than low-relatedness groups, and that variation in ecological constraints had no effect on skew. These findings are strong evidence against the concession model of skew as they suggest that group stability constraints have no impact on the division of reproduction in this species. More debatable, however, is the authors' interpretation of their results as providing good support for the tug-of-war model. This is because (1) the effect of relatedness is predicted to be weak or nonexistent in the tug-of-war model ( Reeve et al. 1998 ), (2) other skew models also predict greater sharing of reproduction and greater productivity between relatives (e.g. Appendix Cant & Johnstone 1999 ), and (3) the result that groups of high relatedness are more productive is consistent with models of helping effort based on kin selection ( Cant & Field 2001, 2005 Kokko et al. 2001 ). Langer et al.'s study provides a convincing falsification of concession models, but rigorous testing of the tug-of-war model is difficult because of the nondiscriminating nature of its predictions.

An alternative tactic for studies of reproductive skew is to shift focus from the question of who wins, and what shares are thereby obtained, to examine overt signs of underlying conflict, such as social aggression. It is sometimes argued in RS theory that the width of the battleground (or ‘window of selfishness’) should be correlated with the level of aggression ( Reeve & Keller 1997 Reeve 2000 ). The reasoning is that where the optima of two parties are most divergent there is greater scope for overt conflict, since in these circumstances the consequences of victory for one or the other party are more starkly differentiated. In general, however, it is not this difference in outcome that will be the prime determinant of the level of behavioural conflict, but rather the costs and benefits to each party of engaging in, or escalating their level of, aggression. Two individuals may have widely different interests, but if aggression carries a severe risk of death or injury then overt conflict may be rare and the combatants may choose to resolve the conflict peaceably. Conversely, where aggression carries little risk of injury or death, overt conflict may be common even when there is little to squabble over. (One is reminded of Henry Kissinger's remark about university politics: disputes are so vicious because the stakes are so low.) More formally, if the fitness of two individuals w1 and w2 is a function of their own aggression level a and that of their partner, the ESS levels of aggression will be determined by the slopes ∂w1(a1, a2)/∂a1 and ∂w2(a1, a2)/∂a2, not the width of their zone of conflict. To illustrate, the battleground of reproductive skew theory is at its widest when relatedness equals 1, yet under these circumstances dominant and subordinate should be neutral as to the division of reproduction, and so have nothing to gain from aggressive acts ( Cant & Johnstone 2000 ).

The question of how underlying genetic conflict is manifested in overt actions is fundamental to our understanding of patterns of social behaviour. As described, social aggression may plausibly represent the direct exercise of power or control over reproductive shares. Parent–offspring conflict theory, however, suggests alternative, more subtle roles for aggression in animal societies. For example, aggression by subordinates may parallel the begging behaviour of offspring as a competitive display or an honest signal of need. That is, subordinate aggression may be a way of manipulating dominants into giving up reproduction by inflicting costs on themselves, on a dominant or on the group (in a manner analogous to scramble models of begging Parker & Macnair 1979 Parker 2002 ), or it may convey information as to what share of reproduction a subordinate ‘requires’ to stay in the group or refrain from challenging the dominant's status (analogous to signalling models of begging Godfray 1991, 1995b Godfray & Johnstone 2000) . Subordinates may aggressively ‘test’ dominants to determine their relative strength or quality ( Reeve & Ratnieks 1993 Cant & Johnstone 2000 ). The displays of dominants, for their part, may act as a deterrent signal to discourage subordinates from engaging in an escalated contest. Animal conflict has been the focus of evolutionary game theory since its inception ( Maynard Smith & Price 1973 ), but we have surprisingly little theory to help understand the function and consequences of aggression in cooperative societies ( Clutton-Brock & Parker 1995 Frank 1995 Reeve & Nonacs 1997 Reeve et al. 1998 Cant & Johnstone 2000 Reeve 2000 ). Models that make specific assumptions about the function of aggression offer opportunities to test between the candidate hypotheses. This area of research is in its infancy.

6 Toxic Arguing Techniques Used by Narcissists and Manipulators

People with strong narcissistic, sociopathic, and psychopathic tendencies (hereafternarcissists) are unwilling or unable to resolve conflicts or participate in discussion in a healthy, mature manner.

Now, its worth noting that not everyone who doesnt know how to build sound arguments, isnt familiar with logical fallacies, or doesnt know how to resolve conflicts is a narcissist. However, a regular, well-intentioned person is usually genuinely willing to become better at it. Meanwhile, a narcissistic person wants to win, dominate, and get what they want, oftentimes at the expense of other peoples well-being.

As someone who has been fascinated by and studied philology (i.e., language), psychology, and argumentation for most of my adult life, Ive seen thousands of good and bad examples in various scenarios and everything in between. Most people, however, are not knowledgeable in these disciplines and therefore may become easily confused, frustrated, intimidated, or shocked when they encounter certain toxic tactics commonly used by narcissists and other manipulators.

And so in this article we will explore some typical techniques a narcissist uses in conflicts and similar social situations.

1. Arguing in bad faith

When in disagreement, a common person tries to understand the other party, listen to them, be honest, and make sure they understand where others are coming from. Sure, sometimes people can slip and become too upset or too anxious. But generally thats the unwritten guideline.

Narcissists on the other hand argue in what is sometimes referred to as bad faith. It means that they dont even care about, or try to understand, the other person. Or even worse, they are dedicated to deliberately misunderstanding and mischaracterizing others, often to the point of absurdity.

They are willingly dishonest, deceptive, and morally corrupt. Often while at the same time quick to accuse others of being dishonest, deceptive, and morally corrupt (more on that in #5).

2. Fallacies, nonsense, word salad

Narcissists are often ill-equipped to have mature discussions or resolve conflicts yet in their mind they are experts at it. As a result, they often use some terms, arguments, or techniques that theyve heard about yet dont really understand, all while thinking that they are being rational, reasonable, or correct. Sometimes to the degree that they become extremely upset or even aggressive that you are being irrational, unreasonable, uneducated, and unwilling or unable to have a mature conversation.

Meanwhile in reality, what theyre saying is simply an incoherent rant or an amalgamation of logical and argumentation fallacies, misrepresentation of you, factual errors, emotional language, or pure nonsense (as in something that literally makes no sense). In more extreme cases it is called word salad, as in a mix of words that are just thrown together with no coherence or structure.

3. Provoking, bullying, intimidating

Since a narcissists goal is to dominate and be perceived as right at all costs, they often use aggression.This category involves the more overtly aggressive tactics commonly used by narcissists.

Such methods include provoking, bullying, and intimidating, where the narcissist picks on you, calls you names, yells, acts overly emotional, deliberately tries to hurt you, blatantly lies, threatens, or even physically aggresses against you.

Not only that, then they spin it around by presenting it as if by reacting to it or by ignoring them you are the one whos unreasonable, too emotional, and aggressive against them.

4. Lying, denying, changing definitions

Here, in order to win, the narcissist uses more covert tactics.

Sometimes they lie about what happened, what you or they did and didnt do, or even about whats real and factually true. Often to the degree of pure denial and delusion. An attempt to confuse the other person and make them doubt their experiences or reality by lying about it is called gaslighting.

Another method that falls in this category is redefining to suit their narrative. For that purpose, they are keen on using euphemistic language or redefining commonly used words to fit their narrative when it clearly doesnt. Again, the goal is to justify that what they are doing is good and what they are saying is right, even when it clearly isnt.

Sometimes it means reframing or minimizing their toxic behavior to confuse you. For instance, I didnt yell at you, I was just passionate. Or, This is not abusive or manipulative, Im just being assertive and honest.

5. Deflecting, attacking, projecting

A painfully common tactic used by narcissists is deflect and attack.

Here, the goal is to shift attention from what the narcissist is saying and doing to what you are saying and doing, where they never have to take responsibility for their toxic behavior or address anything youre saying.

If you bring something up that you dont like or find to be untrue and problematic, instead of addressing it or taking responsibility for it, they will quickly deflect and go into attack mode. This means they will use their toxic tactics to quickly shift attention from themselves and bring up something that you may or may not have said or done. Often to the degree where they try to always keep you on the defense by accusing you of all sorts of stuff, some of which includes the things they are actually doing themselves (narcissistic projection).

And if you make a mistake of actually trying to address it, you will get distracted from the initial issue and soon become overwhelmed by all the stuff that now you are expected to address and clarify. And do so to a person who doesnt care about understanding you and is dedicated to mischaracterizing you in order to dominate and win an argument.

6. Involving others and acting out revenge fantasies

Narcissists have extremely fragile egos and a shaky sense of self-esteem. If you actually stand up for yourself and dont play their games, they perceive it as humiliation, as you being unfair, even abusive to them. In their eyes, you are being unreasonable because you dont acknowledge that they are superior, right, and all around wonderful people. They find it terribly offensive, and feel shame, injustice, and rage (narcissistic injury).

To regulate their overwhelming emotions, they often try to receive false validation. This means looking for people who would side with them and tell them that you are wrong and evil and they are right and good. It involves lying, smearing, slandering, triangulating, gossiping, stalking, and other forms of social aggression and manipulation.

We explored this more in the previous article titled How Narcissists Play the Victim and Twist the Story.

Summary and final words

In a social interaction, discussion, or argument, regular, well-meaning people treat others with curiosity, empathy, and good faith. A narcissist, on the other hand, sees interaction as a win-lose situation. To win, they try to dominate, bully, deceive, demean, humiliate, and hurt others.

For that, they use certain common and predictable tactics that include but are not limited to arguing in bad faith, lying, denying, deflecting and attacking, gaslighting, and intimidating. If and when they feel they have lost or were wronged, they will try to intimidate you further and manipulate others in order to hurt you personally and socially. Sometimes while accusing you of it at the same time.

Engaging with a person who uses these tactics is fruitless, frustrating, boring, and predictable. Yet someone who is not quite familiar with it may think, But if only I explained myself better Or, But if only I presented my argument better Or, But if only they could understand where Im coming from But if only.

Yet theyre not interested in, and often not even capable of, that. They dont care about sound arguments, honesty, empathy, curiosity, or win-win resolutions. They mightclaim that they are all about that, but if you look at how they act its evident that they are not.

So after you noticed that youre dealing with someone who is consistently participating in something like this and is not really interested in conflict resolution or finding truth, you can safely decide not to engage with them and save yourself a headache.

Watch the video: Wieso man Kakerlaken so schwer töten kann (July 2022).


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