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The two major angiosperm groups


Angiosperms were subdivided into two classes: monocotyledons and the dicotyledons.

Examples of monocotyledon angiosperms are grass, sugar cane, corn, rice, wheat, oats, barley, bamboo, rye, lily, garlic, onion, banana, bromeliads and orchids.

Examples of dicotyledonous angiosperms are beans, peanuts, soybeans, peas, lentils, chickpeas, redwood, ipe, peroba, mahogany, cherry, avocado, acerola, rose hips, strawberry, pear, apple, cotton, coffee, genipap, sunflower and daisy.

Monocotyledons and dicotyledons: some differences

Among angiosperms, there are two basic types of roots: fascinated and pivoting.

Fascinated Roots - Also called hairy roots, they form in a plant a set of thin roots that originate from a single point. In this set of roots, one noticeably more developed root is noticeable than the others: they all have roughly the same degree of development. Fascinated roots occur in the monocotyledons.

Pivoting Roots - Also called axial roots, they form in the plant a main root, usually larger than the others and that penetrates vertically into the soil; from the main root depart lateral roots, which also branch off. Pivoting roots occur in the dicotyledons.


Fasciculated and pivoting root, respectively

In angiosperms there are usually two basic types of leaves: paralelineal and reticulated.


Paralelineal Leaves - They are common in monocotyledonous angiosperms. The ribs are more or less parallel to each other.


Reticulated sheets - They usually occur in dicotyledonous angiosperms. The ribs branch off, forming a kind of network.

There are other differences between monocotyledons and dicotyledons, but let us highlight only the one responsible for the denomination of the two groups.

The angiosperm seed embryo contains a structure called cotyledon. Cotyledon is a modified leaf associated with the nutrition of embryonic cells that could generate a new plant.

  • Monocotyledon seeds. In this kind of seed, like corn, there is a single cotyledon; hence the name of this group of plants is monocotyledonous (from the Greek monos: 'only one'). The substances that nourish the embryo are stored in a region called endosperm. Cotyledon transfers nutrients to developing embryonic cells.
  • Dicotyledon seeds. In this type of seed, like beans, there are two cotyledons - which justifies the group name, dicotyledons (from the Greek say: 'two'). Endosperm does not usually develop in dicotyledonous seeds; The two cotyledons then store the substances necessary for the development of the embryo.

Summary: Monocotyledons vs Dicotyledons

MONOCOTILEDONES DICOTILEDONES
root fasciculated (“wig”) pivoting or axial (main)
stalk usually without growth in thickness (stalk, rhizome, bulb) usually with thick growth (trunk)
pot distribution in the stem “scattered” libero-woody bundles (atactostelic distribution = irregular) Libero-woody bundles arranged in a circle (eustelic distribution = regular)
leaf invaginating: developed sheath; uninergic or paralelergic. petiolate: shortened sheath; petiole; reticular or peninervic veins.
Flower trimmer (3 elements or multiples) camera, tetramer or pentamera
embryo a cotyledon 2 cotyledons
examples bamboo; sugar cane; grass; corn; rice; onion; ginger; coconut; Palm trees. eucalyptus; avocado; Strawberry; Apple; wait; bean; pea; castor bean; rosewood; potato.